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Table 1 Evidence for a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly

From: The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact

Epidemiological and clinical findings
  Increase in microcephaly cases coincides with increase in ZIKV transmission (with a 6-month delay)
  Data modeling shows that the main period at risk is the first trimester of pregnancy
  Of the microcephaly cases investigated in Brazil, 32 % were linked to ZIKV
  Case study: Miscarriage of a baby with microcephaly was positive for ZIKV (including in its brain), but negative for other known infectious causes of microcephaly
Laboratory studies
  ZIKV can infect human neural progenitor cells and attenuate their growth in vitro
Primary human placental macrophages and trophoblasts are permissive to ZIKV infection in vitro
Animal models
  Mouse model of ZIKV display signs of microcephaly
Analogy to related viruses
  Rubella virus, another flavivirus, causes microcephaly when infection occurs during pregnancy
  1. Note: See text for further details and discussion of the evidence