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Table 1 Crude rates of serious infections with immunosuppressive drugs or corticosteroids in patients with lupus nephritis

From: Risk of serious infections with immunosuppressive drugs and glucocorticoids for lupus nephritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Treatment #Studies # Events # Patients Aggregate rate, per patient Minimum rate Maximum rate
Glucocorticoids 10 30 179 0.181 0.106 0.291
CYC 12 46 285 0.151 0.092 0.240
MMF 12 69 728 0.116 0.072 0.182
AZA 8 45 266 0.184 0.095 0.329
TAC 5 14 171 0.087 0.052 0.141
CSA 3 10 65 0.166 0.091 0.283
CYC LD 4 21 128 0.172 0.114 0.252
HD glucocorticoids 1 4 15 0.267 0.104 0.533
CYC HD 9 60 506 0.131 0.073 0.225
AZA HD 1 2 20 0.100 0.00 1.131
LEF HD 1 3 70 0.043 0.00 0.090
CYC-AZA 3 15 74 0.206 0.118 0.333
MMF-AZA 1 2 32 0.063 0.00 0.146
RTX + MMF 1 12 72 0.167 0.081 0.253
  1. CYC-AZA, CYC followed by AZA
  2. MMF-AZA, MMF followed by AZA
  3. RTX + MMF, RTX combined with MMF
  4. CYC cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, AZA azathioprine, TAC tacrolimus, CSA cyclosporine, LEF leflunomide, HD high dose, LD low dose; when not specified, standard dose should be inferred