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Table 2 Serious infection risk in patients with lupus nephritis with various immunosuppressive drugs or corticosteroids showing only the statistically significant results

From: Risk of serious infections with immunosuppressive drugs and glucocorticoids for lupus nephritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Treatment Reference OR (95 % CrI) RR (95 % CrI) RD (95 % Crl)
TAC Glucocorticoids 0.33 (0.12–0.88) 0.36 (0.14–0.90) –0.09 (–0.15 to –0.01)
TAC CYC 0.37 (0.15–0.87) 0.41 (0.17–0.88) –0.07 (–0.14 to –0.01)
TAC MMF 0.40 (0.18–0.81) 0.43 (0.21–0.83) –0.07 (–0.14 to –0.02)
TAC AZA 0.32 (0.12–0.81) 0.35 (0.14–0.83) –0.09 (–0.20 to –0.02)
CYC LD TAC 4.84 (1.48–17.64) 4.00 (1.43–11.47) 0.15 (0.03 to 0.40)
HD glucocorticoids TAC 12.83 (1.53–119.90) 7.67 (1.47–25.14) 0.35 (0.03 to 0.79)
CYC HD TAC 6.60 (2.25–20.50) 5.06 (2.03–12.89) 0.20 (0.07 to 0.43)
MMF-AZA CYC LD 0.09 (0.01–0.76) 0.11 (0.01–0.79) –0.17 (–0.43 to –0.03)
MMF-AZA HD glucocorticoids 0.03 (0.00–0.56) 0.06 (0.00–0.61) –0.37 (–0.82 to –0.04)
MMF-AZA CYC HD 0.07 (0.01–0.54) 0.09 (0.01–0.60) –0.22 (–0.46 to –0.06)
MMF-AZA CYC-AZA 0.14 (0.02–0.71) 0.16 (0.02–0.75) –0.11 (–0.29 to –0.02)
  1. All odds ratios are statistically significant
  2. High-dose (HD) glucocorticoids were defined as one of the following or a similar regimen: (1) prednisone or methylprednisolone 1 gm/m2 qd intravenous × 3 at entry, then one dose intravenous q month for 1 year; (2) prednisone 1 mg/kg po qd with a slow taper up to 1 year or longer taper (or unspecified taper in an occasional case)
  3. Glucocorticoids were defined as one of the following or a similar regimen: (1) prednisone 40 mg po qod for 8 weeks then taper to 10 mg qd within a year; (2) 60 mg qd for 1–3 months reduced to 20 mg/d by 6 months
  4. CYC, low dose (LD): CYC IV 500 mg q 14 d × 6 doses or a similar regimen
  5. CYC: CYC IV 0.5–1.0 gm/m2 q 2 month for 1 year or CYC PO 1–4 mg/kg daily for 4 years (standard dose) or a similar regimen
  6. CYC, HD: CYC IV 0.5–1.0 gm/m2 q month × 6–9 months, then q3 months for 0.5–4 years or CYC PO 10 mg/kg daily or a similar regimen
  7. MMF-AZA: MMF followed by AZA
  8. CYC-AZA: CYC followed by AZA
  9. CYC cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, AZA azathioprine, TAC tacrolimus, HD high dose, LD low dose