Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Prospective association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and incident cardiovascular diseases in EPIC-Norfolk (n = 23,902, 7606 cases, 269,935 person-years)

From: Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study

Mediterranean diet scorea Hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals)
Adjusted for age and sex Further adjusted for potential confoundersb Further adjusted for potential mediatorsb
PyrMDS, based on dietary pyramid (0–15)
 Low (3.2–8.0) Reference Reference Reference
 Medium (8.0–9.1) 0.95 (0.90–1.00) 0.96 (0.91–1.02) 0.97 (0.92–1.02)
 High (9.1–13.1) 0.85 (0.80–0.90) 0.89 (0.84–0.94) 0.91 (0.85–0.96)
  P trend <0.001 <0.001 0.001
 Per SD difference 0.93 (0.91–0.95) 0.95 (0.92–0.97) 0.95 (0.93–0.97)
LitMDS, based on literature (0–18)
 Low (0–8) Reference Reference Reference
 Medium (9–10) 0.96 (0.90–1.01) 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 0.95 (0.90–1.01)
 High (11–18) 0.91 (0.86–0.97) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.92 (0.87–0.98)
  P trend 0.002 0.005 0.005
 Per SD difference 0.96 (0.93–0.98) 0.96 (0.94–0.99) 0.96 (0.94–0.98)
mMDS, based on medians (0–9)
 Low (0–3) Reference Reference Reference
 Medium (4–5) 0.94 (0.89–0.99) 0.96 (0.91–1.01) 0.95 (0.90–1.00)
 High (6–9) 0.95 (0.89–1.00) 0.97 (0.92–1.03) 0.97 (0.91–1.03)
  P trend 0.053 0.295 0.21
 Per SD difference 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.98 (0.96–1.00)
tMDS, based on tertiles (0–18)
 Low (0–7) Reference Reference Reference
 Medium (8–9) 0.97 (0.92–1.03) 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.97 (0.92–1.03)
 High (10–18) 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 0.94 (0.89–0.99) 0.93 (0.88–0.98)
  P trend 0.008 0.024 0.011
 Per SD difference 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.97 (0.94–0.99) 0.96 (0.94–0.99)
  1. aFor each Mediterranean diet score, three groups (low, medium and high adherence) were assigned to ensure approximately equal numbers of observations per group. Ordinal scores were assigned to participants, according to four different pre-specified algorithms (see methods, Additional file 1: Table S1 and S2 for details)
  2. bSee methods for list of confounders and mediators