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Table 2 Metabolites associated with each immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) in the discovery and validation cohorts

From: Urine metabolome profiling of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

IMID/Metabolite log2(IMID/Ctrl)DISb P DIS log2(IMID/Ctrl)VALb P VAL P COMB
CD/Citrate –0.94 (–1.21 to –0.68) 1.4 × 10–8 –0.80 (–1.01 to –0.59) 1.1 × 10–9 6.2 × 10–16
SLE/Citrate –0.68 (–0.96 to –0.41) 6.1 × 10–5 –0.85 (–1.11 to –0.59) 1.4 × 10–7 2.3 × 10–10
Ps/Citrate –0.60 (–0.82 to –0.38) 1.0 × 10–5 –0.45 (–0.64 to –0.26) 1.3 × 10–4 2.9 × 10–8
RA/Citrate –0.49 (–0.72 to –0.26) 5.4 × 10–4 –0.55 (–0.77 to –0.33) 4.3 × 10–5 4.3 × 10–7
PsA/Citrate –0.39 (–0.63 to –0.16) 6.7 × 10–3 –0.44 (–0.64 to –0.24) 3.7 × 10–4 3.5 × 10–5
UC/Citratea –0.34 (–0.57 to –0.11) 1.6 × 10–2 –0.39 (–0.59 to –0.19) 1.6 × 10–3 3.0 × 10–4
UC/N-acetyl AAs –0.57 (–0.85 to –0.30) 7.6 × 10–4 –0.64 (–0.87 to –0.42) 2.4 × 10–6 3.8 × 10–8
RA/N-acetyl AAsa –0.32 (–0.53 to –0.10) 1.7 × 10–2 –0.61 (–0.86 to –0.37) 4.3 × 10–5 1.1 × 10–5
CD/N-acetyl AAs –0.63 (–0.90 to –0.36) 1.4 × 10–4 –0.26 (–0.47 to –0.06) 3.7 × 10–2 6.7 × 10–5
Ps/N-acetyl AAs –0.27 (–0.43 to –0.11) 6.9 × 10–3 –0.35 (–0.54 to –0.15) 3.3 × 10–3 2.6 × 10–4
PsA/N-acetyl AAs –0.43 (–0.67 to –0.19) 3.9 × 10–3 –0.28 (–0.46 to –0.10) 9.1 × 10–3 3.9 × 10–4
Ps/Trigonelline –0.70 (–0.99 to –0.40) 1.0 × 10–4 –0.73 (–0.94 to –0.51) 7.3 × 10–8 2.0 × 10–10
UC/Trigonelline –0.56 (–0.88 to –0.25) 3.3 × 10–3 –0.72 (–0.95 to –0.48) 7.3 × 10–7 5.0 × 10–8
CD/Trigonelline –0.71 (–1.01 to –0.41) 1.3 × 10–4 –0.54 (–0.75 to –0.32) 3.8 × 10–5 1.0 × 10–7
PsA/Trigonellinea –0.46 (–0.74 to –0.18) 7.5 × 10–3 –0.42 (–0.63 to –0.21) 1.1 × 10–3 1.0 × 10–4
SLE/Alanine –0.29 (–0.44 to –0.14) 1.5 × 10–3 –0.62 (–0.75 to –0.49) 4.8 × 10–14 2.7 × 10–15
Ps/Alanine –0.31 (–0.45 to –0.16) 4.2 × 10–4 –0.35 (–0.46 to –0.25) 6.5 × 10–8 7.0 × 10–10
PsA/Alaninea –0.17 (–0.31 to –0.04) 4.0 × 10–2 –0.37 (–0.47 to –0.26) 4.0 × 10–8 3.4 × 10–8
RA/Alanine –0.24 (–0.38 to –0.10) 5.3 × 10–3 –0.35 (–0.46 to –0.24) 4.4 × 10–7 4.9 × 10–8
CD/Alaninea –0.23 (–0.38 to –0.08) 1.2 × 10–2 –0.21 (–0.32 to –0.11) 6.7 × 10–4 1.1 × 10–4
SLE/Methylsuccinatea –0.72 (–1.25 to –0.19) 2.5 × 10–2 –2.10 (–2.61 to –1.59) 5.0 × 10–11 3.6 × 10–11
UC/Methylsuccinate –1.09 (–1.58 to –0.60) 2.9 × 10–4 –0.61 (–1.01 to –0.22) 1.1 × 10–2 4.5 × 10–5
CD/Methylsuccinate –1.05 (–1.56 to –0.54) 7.4 × 10–4 –0.67 (–1.08 to –0.26) 7.6 × 10–3 7.4 × 10–5
PsA/Methylsuccinatea –0.74 (–1.25 to –0.23) 1.6 × 10–2 –0.91 (–1.35 to –0.47) 6.7 × 10–4 1.4 × 10–4
Ps/Methylsuccinate –0.95 (–1.49 to –0.40) 4.7 × 10–3 –0.63 (–1.07 to –0.20) 1.7 × 10–2 8.3 × 10–4
UC/Unknown 7 5.49 (4.72 to 6.26) 2.2 × 10–26 5.30 (4.68 to 5.93) 1.5 × 10–36 4.7 × 10–60
CD/Unknown 7 2.40 (1.61 to 3.20) 1.0 × 10–6 2.75 (2.14 to 3.36) 5.1 × 10–13 2.3 × 10–17
RA/Unknown 7 1.68 (0.99 to 2.37) 7.6 × 10–5 1.48 (0.94 to 2.02) 8.2 × 10–6 1.4 × 10–8
SLE/Unknown 7a 0.81 (0.18 to 1.44) 3.4 × 10–2 1.33 (0.80 to 1.86) 4.8 × 10–5 2.3 × 10–5
CD/Hippurate –1.74 (–2.08 to –1.40) 1.5 × 10–15 –1.54 (–1.80 to –1.28) 4.5 × 10–20 5.5 × 10–33
UC/Hippurate –1.03 (–1.32 to –0.73) 3.3 × 10–8 –0.92 (–1.16 to –0.69) 3.8 × 10–10 4.9 × 10–16
Ps/Hippuratea –0.40 (–0.66 to –0.13) 1.6 × 10–2 –0.33 (–0.54 to –0.11) 1.4 × 10–2 2.0 × 10–3
RA/Carnitinea –0.68 (–1.11 to –0.25) 9.2 × 10–3 –1.05 (–1.35 to –0.75) 2.1 × 10–8 4.4 × 10–9
PsA/Carnitinea –0.55 (–0.98 to –0.11) 3.9 × 10–2 –0.80 (–1.11 to –0.50) 2.0 × 10–5 1.2 × 10–5
CD/3-Hydroxyisovalerate –1.02 (–1.51 to –0.53) 6.7 × 10–4 –1.88 (–2.27 to –1.48) 4.2 × 10–14 1.1 × 10–15
UC/Phenylacetylglycine 0.42 (0.19 to 0.65) 2.5 × 10–3 0.48 (0.31 to 0.65) 5.5 × 10–6 2.7 × 10–7
CD/Free acetatea –0.46 (–0.80 to –0.11) 3.0 × 10–2 –0.51 (–0.71 to –0.30) 6.5 × 10–5 2.8 × 10–5
RA/Tyrosine 1.25 (0.60 to 1.90) 1.7 × 10–3 0.57 (0.14 to 1.00) 3.0 × 10–2 5.7 × 10–4
CD/N,N-dimethylglycinea –0.27 (–0.46 to –0.07) 2.3 × 10–2 –0.25 (–0.44 to –0.06) 2.8 × 10–2 5.5 × 10–3
  1. Association statistics for the discovery (DIS), the validation (VAL) and the combined (COMB) cohorts. aNominal association
  2. bLogarithmic concentration ratios (median, 95 % CI) of the corresponding IMID cohort versus the control cohort
  3. CD, Crohn’s disease; N-acetyl AAs, N-acetyl amino acids; Ps, psoriasis; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; UC, ulcerative colitis