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Table 1 Mother-newborn characteristics according to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI

From: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and newborn telomere length

Characteristic Normal weight
n = 488
Overweight
n = 175
Obese
n = 80
P for trend
Newborn
 Gender
  Girls, n 251 (51.4 %) 84 (48.0 %) 41 (51.3 %) 0.73
 European-Caucasian, n 441 (90.4 %) 151 (86.3 %) 66 (82.5 %) 0.07
 Gestational age, weeks 39.1 (1.5) 39.3 (1.4) 39.3 (1.7) 0.27
 Birth weight, g 3351 (468) 3490 (453) 3502 (524) 0.0005
Maternal
 Age, years 29.2 (4.5) 29.3 (4.6) 28.4 (4.5) 0.34
 Education     
  Low, n 54 (11.1 %) 18 (10.3 %) 11 (13.8 %) 0.25
  Middle, n 170 (34.8 %) 70 (40.0 %) 36 (45.0 %)  
  High, n 264 (54.1 %) 87 (49.7 %) 33 (41.3 %)  
 Smoking status
  Never smoker, n 305 (62.5 %) 109 (62.3 %) 51 (63.8 %) 0.80
  Stopped smoker, n 118 (24.2 %) 39 (22.3 %) 21 (26.3 %)  
  Continued smoker, n 65 (13.3 %) 27 (15.4 %) 8 (10.0 %)  
 Cesarean section, n 13 (2.7 %) 13 (7.4 %) 7 (8.8 %) 0.005
 Pregnancy complication, n 38 (7.8 %) 23 (13.1 %) 17 (21.3 %) 0.006
 Parity
  1, n 285 (58.4 %) 86 (49.1 %) 46 (57.5 %) 0.12
  2, n 158 (32.4 %) 63 (36.0 %) 28 (35.0 %)  
  ≥3, n 45 (9.2 %) 26 (14.9 %) 6 (7.5 %)  
 Pregnancy weight gain, kg 14.9 (5.2) 14.1 (6.5) 11.4 (6.1) <0.0001
Paternal
 Age, years 31.7 (4.9) 31.7 (4.7) 31.1 (5.7) 0.59
  1. Classification of pre-pregnancy BMI classes: Normal when BMI < 25 kg/m2, overweight when 25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2, and obese when BMI > 30 kg/m2
  2. Values are presented as means (SD) or n (%)