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Table 1 Quantitative synthesis, bias assessment and credibility assessment of 74 associations between different comparisons of birth weight and health outcomes or traits

From: Birth weight in relation to health and disease in later life: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Reference Outcome Level of comparison N cases/ N controls N datasets Effect size metric Random-effects meta-analysis (95 % CI) P value (random) I2 95 % prediction intervals P value for Egger test P value for Excess significance test
Araujo de Franca, 2014 [59] Waist circumference Per 1 kg increase 4898d 6 Regression coefficient −0.10 (−0.73 to 0.53) 0.760 73.2 −2.04 to 1.84 0.725 0.943
Araujo de Franca, 2014 [59] Waist-to-hip ratio Per 1 kg increase 5008d 10 Regression coefficient −0.59 (−0.84 to −0.34) 4.0 × 10−6 0 −0.89 to −0.30 0.545 0.052
Baird, 2011 [48] BMC in hip Per 1 kg increase 1795d 6 Regression coefficient 1.42 (0.90 to 1.94) 8.3 × 10−8 5.9 0.56 to 2.28 0.584 0.838
Baird, 2011 [48] BMC in lumbar spine Per 1 kg increase 3181d 7 Regression coefficient 1.72 (0.76 to 2.67) 4.2 × 10−4 33.5 −0.53 to 3.97 0.069a 1.6 × 10−4
Baird, 2011 [48] BMD in hip Per 1 kg increase 3188d 7 Regression coefficient 0.01 (0.00 to 0.02) 0.235 0 −0.01 to 0.01 0.708 0.271
Baird, 2011 [48] BMD in lumbar spine Per 1 kg increase 3506d 8 Regression coefficient 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01) 0.779 14.9 −0.02 to 0.02 0.831 0.341
Berhan, 2014 [46] Perinatal mortality in developing countries <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 21,184/285,970 14 OR 9.59 (6.11 to 15.04) 7.5 × 10−23 98.9 1.43 to 64.18 0.954 0.707
Caughey, 2009 [13] Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 4805/765,827 10 RR 0.97 (0.81 to 1.16) 0.736 0 0.78 to 1.20 0.289 NP
Caughey, 2009 [13] Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 11,082/2,228,906 23 RR 1.29 (1.17 to 1.42) 1.9 × 10−7 36.3 0.97 to 1.72 0.055a 9.4 × 10−7
Caughey, 2009 [13] Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia Per 1 kg increase 7404/858,650 16 RR 1.19 (1.10 to 1.28) 1.7 × 10−5 54.7 0.93 to 1.52 0.990 2.2 × 10−4
Caughey, 2009 [13] All types of leukaemia <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 5766/766,202 11 RR 1.04 (0.86 to 1.26) 0.683 10 0.76 to 1.43 0.357 NP
Caughey, 2009 [13] All types of leukaemia >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g NA/NA 14 RR 1.42 (1.26 to 1.60) 1.2 × 10−8 28.5 1.07 to 1.88 0.001a NA
Caughey, 2009 [13] All types of leukaemia Per 1 kg increase 11,313/861,710 21 RR 1.19 (1.12 to 1.27) 5.1 × 10−8 45.3 0.97 to 1.45 0.590 0.001
Caughey, 2009 [13] Acute myeloid leukaemia <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 756/851,204 9 RR 1.46 (0.87 to 2.43) 0.151 43.7 0.39 to 5.43 0.606 NP
Caughey, 2009 [13] Acute myeloid leukaemia >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 756/851,204 9 RR 1.25 (1.09 to 1.43) 1.3 × 10−3 43.9 0.88 to 1.77 0.216 3.1 × 10−4
Chen, 2012 [60] Bone tumour >4000 g vs. NBW 4044/272,354 8 OR 1.21 (0.97 to 1.50) 0.091 37.8 0.71 to 2.03 0.093a 0.396
Christian, 2013 [40] Childhood stunting SGA vs. AGA (BW ≥ 2500 g) 5413/16,663 10 OR 1.92 (1.75 to 2.12) 1.1 × 10−41 0 1.72 to 2.15 0.968 NP
Christian, 2013 [40] Childhood stunting SGA vs. AGA (BW < 2500 g) 843/1171 10 OR 3.00 (2.36 to 3.81) 2.3 × 10−19 56.6 1.53 to 5.85 0.555 NP
Cook, 2010 [58] Testicular cancer <2500 g vs. NBW 6906/612,741 17 OR 1.34 (1.08 to 1.67) 7.9 × 10−3 50.9 0.69 to 2.62 0.135 0.049
Davey-Smith, 2007 [61] Maternal cardiovascular mortality Per 1 SD increase 2976/974,667 6 HR 0.75 (0.67 to 0.84) 3.1 × 10−7 79.8 0.53 to 1.06 0.657 0.119
Davey-Smith, 2007 [61] Paternal cardiovascular mortality Per 1 SD increase 9375/774,325 3 HR 0.93 (0.91 to 0.95) 2.0 × 10−9 0 0.80 to 1.09 0.317 0.516
der Voort, 2014 [8] Pre-school wheezing <2500 g vs. NBW 40,603/103,271 26 OR 1.10 (1.00 to 1.21) 0.051 16 0.89 to 1.36 0.829 NP
der Voort, 2014 [8] School-age asthma <2500 g vs. NBW 11,729/121,198 16 OR 1.13 (1.01 to 1.27) 0.032 0 1.00 to 1.28 0.639 NP
Dodds, 2012 [62] Muscle strength Per 1 kg increase 20,461d 14 Regression coefficient 0.86 (0.58 to 1.15) 1.9 × 10−9 56.4 −0.01 to 1.74 0.965 NP
Harder, 2007 [7] Type 2 diabetes mellitus <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 5815/100,759 10 OR 1.32 (1.06 to 1.64) 0.013 60.8 0.71 to 2.43 0.196 NP
Harder, 2007 [7] Type 2 diabetes mellitus >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 6005/108,400 9 OR 1.27 (1.01 to 1.59) 0.044 68.2 0.62 to 2.58 0.817 NP
Harder, 2008 [63] Astrocytoma <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 1574/160,146 6 OR 0.85 (0.58 to 1.25) 0.410 31.1 0.35 to 2.09 0.931 NP
Harder, 2008 [63] Astrocytoma >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 1812/1,649,625 8 OR 1.38 (1.07 to 1.79) 0.014 57.5 0.66 to 2.88 0.632 0.160
Harder, 2008 [63] Medulloblastoma <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 747/158,163 5 OR 1.65 (0.42 to 6.50) 0.475 88.2 0.01 to 223 0.828a 0.503
Harder, 2008 [63] Medulloblastoma >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 853/1,647,552 7 OR 1.28 (1.02 to 1.59) 0.033 5.6 0.90 to 1.80 0.818 NP
Harder, 2009 [64] Type 1 diabetes mellitus <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 5236/1,385,809 8 OR 0.82 (0.55 to 1.24) 0.344 91.4 0.20 to 3.31 0.067 NP
Harder, 2009 [64] Type 1 diabetes mellitus >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 6406/2,388,046 10 OR 1.17 (1.09 to 1.26) 1.2 × 10−5 0 1.08 to 1.28 0.883 NP
Harder, 2010 [65] Neuroblastoma <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 2907/2,156,535 10 OR 1.24 (0.99 to 1.55) 0.058 30.2 0.74 to 2.07 0.731 NP
Harder, 2010 [65] Neuroblastoma >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 2856/2,156,654 10 OR 1.19 (1.04 to 1.36) 0.013 0 1.01 to 1.39 0.517 NP
Jackson 2013 [66] Pneumonia in childhood <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 1281/1464 4 OR 3.18 (1.02 to 9.91) 0.046 95.6 0.01 to 714 0.366 NP
Kormos, 2013 [67] Intelligence in adolescence <2500 g vs. NBW NA/NA 15 ORc 0.35 (0.27 to 0.45) 1.7 × 10−16 75.4 0.14 to 0.84 0.001a 7.8 × 10−4
Lawlor 2005 [68] FEV1 Per 1 kg increase 5438d 7 Regression coefficient 0.06 (0.03 to 0.08) 1.4 × 10−5 36.5 −0.01 to 0.12 0.242 NP
Lawlor 2006 [69] Total cholesterol in men Per 1 kg increase 33,650d 34 Regression coefficient −0.04 (−0.07 to −0.01) 0.018 49.8 −0.15 to 0.07 0.377 NP
Lawlor 2006 [69] Total cholesterol in women Per 1 kg increase 23,129d 34 Regression coefficient −0.01 (−0.04 to 0.02) 0.510 27.7 −0.09 to 0.07 0.686 NP
Loret de Mola, 2014 [55] Depression in adulthood SGA vs. AGA 397/2844 5 OR 1.14 (0.64 to 2.03) 0.656 49.3 0.20 to 6.36 0.791 NP
Mebrahtu, 2015 [11] Wheezing disorders in childhood <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 145,421/665,431 20 OR 1.61 (1.39 to 1.85) 1.1 × 10−10 82.3 0.92 to 2.80 0.021a NP
Mebrahtu, 2015 [11] Wheezing disorders in childhood >4000 g vs. NBW 44,988/736,940 10 OR 1.02 (1.00 to 1.05) 0.100 0 0.99 to 1.05 0.985 NP
Michos, 2007 [70] Testicular cancer >4000 g vs. NBW 5684/123,120 10 OR 1.14 (0.99 to 1.31) 0.075 42.8 0.80 to 1.62 0.791 0.006
Milne, 2013 [56] Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia SGA vs. AGA 6835/11,689 12 OR 1.24 (1.13 to 1.36) 4.9 × 10−6 0 1.12 to 1.37 0.101 NP
Mu, 2012 [71] Diastolic blood pressure <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 29,192d 15 ORc 4.45 (1.32 to 14.99) 0.016 99.3 0.02 to 902 0.085a 0.001
Mu, 2012 [71] Systolic blood pressure <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 32,351d 19 ORc 7.45 (2.19 to 25.33) 1.3 × 10−3 99.4 0.02 to 2296 0.148 0.615
Mu, 2014 [41]b Asthma in adulthood <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 2111/37,409 4 OR 1.25 (1.12 to 1.40) 7.7 × 10−5 0 0.98 to 1.60 0.884 NP
Øglund, 2015 [72] Physical activity Per 1 kg increase 10,667d 8 Regression coefficient −3.08 (−10.20 to 4.04) 0.397 9 −14.81 to 8.66 0.881 NP
Papadopoulou, 2012 [73] Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood <2500 g vs. NBW 669/64,058 3 OR 0.94 (0.54 to 1.65) 0.829 0 0.03 to 35.25 0.344 NP
Papadopoulou, 2012 [73] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood <2500 g vs. NBW 1571/68,265 5 OR 1.07 (0.71 to 1.63) 0.740 55.4 0.29 to 3.95 0.599 NP
Papadopoulou, 2012 [73] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood >4000 g vs. NBW 1615/297,469 6 OR 1.17 (0.76 to 1.81) 0.473 66.7 0.32 to 4.28 0.085a 0.207
Panduru, 2013 [74] Atopic dermatitis <2500 g vs. NBW 6315/100,663 10 OR 0.66 (0.48 to 0.90) 9.1 × 10−3 85.6 0.23 to 1.87 0.558 0.412
Panduru, 2013 [74] Atopic dermatitis >4000 g vs. NBW 6224/62,672 6 OR 1.13 (0.97 to 1.31) 0.108 62.9 0.74 to 1.73 0.426 NP
Risnes, 2011 [42]b All-cause mortality <3000 g vs. NBW 32,926/276,648 8 HR 1.12 (1.07 to 1.16) 6.9 × 10−8 21.7 1.03 to 1.21 0.642 NP
Risnes, 2011 [42]b All-cause mortality >4000 g vs. NBW 32,926/276,648 8 HR 1.02 (0.98 to 1.05) 0.302 0 0.98 to 1.06 0.317 NP
Risnes, 2011 [42]b All-cause mortality Per 1 kg increase 36,834/361,874 18 HR 0.94 (0.92 to 0.97) 2.6 × 10−6 18.6 0.89 to 0.99 0.838 0.038
Risnes, 2011 [42]b Mortality from cardiovascular diseases Per 1 kg increase 11,366/314,715 16 HR 0.88 (0.85 to 0.91) 1.6 × 10−13 0 0.84 to 0.91 0.717 0.177
Risnes, 2011 [42]b Mortality from cancer Per 1 kg increase 9233/269,944 10 HR 1.09 (1.04 to 1.14) 3.4 × 10−4 20.8 0.99 to 1.19 0.276 0.037
Schellong, 2012 [43]b Overweight/obese in adulthood <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 73,420/330,648 30 OR 0.67 (0.59 to 0.76) 1.1 × 10−9 82 0.38 to 1.18 0.079a NP
Schellong, 2012 [43]b Overweight/obese in adulthood >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 96,296/396,381 45 OR 1.68 (1.58 to 1.79) 3.6 × 10−57 74.9 1.24 to 2.28 0.133 NP
Silveira 2008 [75] Metabolic syndrome <2500 g vs. NBW NA/NA 11 OR 2.54 (1.57 to 4.09) 1.4 × 10−4 39.2 0.75 to 8.60 0.204 NA
Shi, 2015 [76] RSV-related acute lower respiratory infection in childhood <2500 g vs. NBW 3383/155,872 5 OR 1.91 (1.45 to 2.53) 5.9 × 10−6 59.1 0.81 to 4.54 0.881 NP
van Montfoort, 2005 [77] Cortisol levels Per 1 kg increase 2301d 11 Regression coefficient −20.49 (−35.97 to −5.00) 9.5 × 10−3 46.3 −61.37 to 20.4 0.524 NP
Wang, 2014 [9] Coronary heart disease <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 13,089/360,209 16 OR 1.22 (1.13 to 1.31) 4.7 × 10−7 7 1.08 to 1.37 0.039a 0.751
Wang, 2014 [9] Coronary heart disease >4000 g vs. ≤ 4000 g 18,243/313,235 14 OR 0.89 (0.81 to 0.98) 0.019 47.4 0.68 to 1.16 0.226 NP
Wang, 2014 [9] Coronary heart disease Per 1 kg increase NA/NA 23 OR 0.82 (0.78 to 0.86) 2.4 × 10−15 41.1 0.70 to 0.96 0.014a NA
Whincup, 2008 [78] Type 2 diabetes mellitus Per 1 kg increase 6090/145,994 31 OR 0.80 (0.72 to 0.88) 1.8 × 10−5 66.5 0.52 to 1.21 0.286 0.355
White, 2009 [79] Chronic kidney disease <2500 g vs. NBW NA/NA 21 OR 1.73 (1.44 to 2.08) 8.3 × 10−9 66.3 0.88 to 3.38 0.015a NA
Wojcik, 2013 [14]b Depression in adulthood <2500 g vs. ≥ 2500 g 9013/50,428 18 OR 1.15 (1.00 to 1.32) 0.057 34.3 0.79 to 1.67 0.171 NP
Xu, 2009 [80] Breast cancer Per 1 kg increase 16,299/3,604,802 16 OR 1.08 (1.03 to 1.13) 2.8 × 10−3 22.5 0.97 to 1.20 0.452 4.1 × 10−4
Yang, 2014 [12] Colorectal cancer Per 1 kg increase 5985/723,087 5 RR 1.05 (0.93 to 1.19) 0.461 57.1 0.72 to 1.52 0.457 0.149
Yang, 2014 [12] Endometrial cancer Per 1 kg increase 3780/671,410 5 RR 0.91 (0.81 to 1.03) 0.128 40.2 0.65 to 1.27 0.867 0.758
Yang, 2014 [12] Lung cancer Per 1 kg increase 5207/696,742 4 RR 1.09 (1.02 to 1.16) 0.016 12.3 0.90 to 1.31 0.172 0.436
Yang, 2014 [12] Melanoma Per 1 kg increase 4000/3,821,122 6 RR 1.14 (1.05 to 1.24) 1.9 × 10−3 0 1.01 to 1.29 0.912 NP
Yang, 2014 [12] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Per 1 kg increase 2056/626,082 3 RR 1.12 (1.01 to 1.24) 0.033 0 0.58 to 2.15 0.487 NP
Yang, 2014 [12] Ovarian cancer Per 1 kg increase 2880/805,887 5 RR 0.96 (0.88 to 1.04) 0.295 0 0.83 to 1.10 0.609 NP
Zhang, 2013 [81] Diastolic blood pressure >4000 g vs. NBW 150,980d 23 MD 0.19 (−0.23 to 0.62) 0.367 72.5 −1.39 to 1.79 0.792 NP
Zhang, 2013 [81] Systolic blood pressure >4000 g vs. NBW 151,935d 24 MD −0.25 (−0.92 to 0.42) 0.466 79.3 −2.97 to 2.47 0.477 NP
  1. aBoth criteria for presence of small-study effects fulfilled (P value for Egger’s test < 0.10 and largest study with a smaller [more conservative] effect size than random-effects summary effect size)
  2. bThe highlighted papers performed a comparison between studies adjusting for and not adjusting for gestational age
  3. cRandom-effects summary effect size estimated from standardized mean difference transformed to odds ratio
  4. dIn meta-analyses with a continuous outcome, the total sample size is reported
  5. AGA adequate-for-gestational age, BMC bone mineral concentration, BMD bone mineral density, CI confidence interval, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in the first second, HR hazard ratio, OR odds ratio, RR risk ratio, MD mean difference, NA not available, NBW normal birth weight, NP not pertinent (because the number of expected significant studies was larger than the number of observed significant studies), RSV respiratory syncytial virus, SD standard error, SGA small-for-gestational age