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Table 1 Case fatality ratio, health services utilization (e.g., probability of seeking care conditional on being sick), and out-of-pocket direct medical costs for 20 leading causes of mortality in Ethiopia

From: Assessing the burden of medical impoverishment by cause: a systematic breakdown by disease in Ethiopia

Cause of mortality Case fatality ratio (%) Health services utilization (%) Out-of-pocket direct medical costs (2013 US$) Sources
Lower respiratory infections (LRI) 1.1 % 27 %a; 9 %b $6a*; $51b* [13, 25, 26]
Diarrhea 0.1 31a; 1b 5a*; 59b* [13, 2729]
Malaria 0.3 24a; 1b 2a; 4b [13, 3033]
Tuberculosis 17.0 62 49 [34, 35]
Stroke 39.7 25a,c; 9b,c 146a**; 343b** [3639]
Preterm birth complications 4.6 8d 43 Based on cesarean section provider unit cost [40] and [13, 4144]
HIV 6.2 68 5 [4548]
Road injury 2.3 50c 75 Based on surgical procedure provider unit cost [49] and [50]
Meningitis 27.0 27 66 Based on LRI inputs and [30, 51]
Ischemic heart disease 29.1 25a,c; 9b,c 338a**; 629b** [52, 53]
Cirrhosis 33.6 2 417 Based on [55] and estimated cancer utilization, average out-of-pocket inpatient cost for breast and cervical cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
Measles 3.5 31a; 1b 5a; 59b Based on diarrhea inputs and [54]
Whooping cough 2.8 27a; 9b 6a; 51b Based on LRI inputs and [56]
Diabetes mellitus 21.0 25c 176 [57, 66]
Neonatal encephalopathy 3.9 3e 76 Based on intrapartum-related conditions [4144, 67] and cesarean section provider unit cost [40]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1.1 27a; 9b 7a; 56b Based on LRI inputs and [58]
Epilepsy 0.4 5 18 [59, 60]
Cervical cancer 66.7 2a; 1b 280a; 508b [6163]
Asthma 0.2 27a; 9b 7a; 56b Based on LRI inputs and [65]
Breast cancer 54.7 2 431 [61, 63, 64]
  1. aOutpatient care
  2. bInpatient care
  3. cAssumptions based on expert opinion (author STM and colleagues from Ethiopia’s Federal Ministry of Health)
  4. dUtilization is estimated at 8.2 %: skilled birth attendance rate of 16.4 % [41] multiplied by 0.5 according to World Health Organization expert panel estimation for effective coverage [42]
  5. eUtilization is estimated at 3.3 %: skilled birth attendance rate of 16.4 % [41] multiplied by 0.2 according to World Health Organization expert panel estimation for effective coverage [42]
  6. *Memirie ST, Metafaria ZS, Norheim OF, Levin C, Verguet S, Johansson KA. Catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with pneumonia and diarrhea treatment costs in Ethiopia. Under review
  7. **Tolla MT, Norheim OF, Belayneh A, Amenu K, Abdisa SG, Verguet S, Johansson KA. Out-of-pocket expenditure for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in general and specialized hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Under review