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Table 2 Estimated total number of poverty cases, defined as condition-specific out-of-pocket (OOP) direct medical costs pushing households below the poverty line, for the base case scenario and for two sensitivity analyses ((1) 75 % utilization across all conditions and (2) key inputs including disease-specific cases, utilization, and OOP direct medical costs varying across income), and deaths incurred by each of 20 leading causes of mortality in Ethiopia. The share of poverty cases among all estimated cases and the ranking are also indicated. In brackets are presented the 95 % uncertainty ranges (URs) for the base case

From: Assessing the burden of medical impoverishment by cause: a systematic breakdown by disease in Ethiopia

Cause of mortality Number of poverty cases due to direct OOP medical costs Number of poverty cases due to direct OOP medical costs, 75 % utilization (1) Number of poverty cases due to direct OOP medical costs, key inputs varying across income (2) Number of deaths
Diarrhea Count: 164,100 (95 % UR: 95,000–233,900)
Share: 46.7 % (95 % UR: 32.4–58.1 %)
Ranking: 1 (95 % UR: 1–1)
Count: 222,000
Share: 30.0 %
Ranking: 1
Count: 104,000
Share: 43.2 %
Ranking: 1
58,500
Lower respiratory infections 59,200 (35,800–98,400)
16.9 % (10.4–26.6 %)
2 (2–3)
165,500
22.4 %
2
38,000
15.8 %
2
77,000
Road injury 44,700 (24,200–74,800)
12.8 % (6.8–20.5 %)
3 (2–3)
66,800
9.0 %
3
32,000
13.3 %
3
17,800
Tuberculosis 13,600 (7400–23,100)
3.9 % (2.1–6.8 %)
4 (4–8)
16,300
2.2 %
11
8700
3.6 %
6
31,000
Ischemic heart disease 13,100 (8400–20,300)
3.7 % (2.2–6.2 %)
5 (4–7)
39,500
5.3 %
4
16,300
30.0 %
4
50,200
Asthma 12,400 (7200–20,600)
3.5 % (2.0–6.1 %)
6 (4–8)
33,700
4.6 %
6
7700
3.2 %
7
2600
Stroke 9900 (6300–16,000)
2.8 % (1.7–4.7 %)
7 (4–9)
29,900
4.0 %
7
11,300
4.7 %
5
53,800
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 7300 (4600–12,200)
2.1 % (1.2–3.7 %)
8 (5–10)
20,200
2.7 %
9
4700
2.0 %
8
8600
HIV 4,900 (2,500–8400)
1.4 % (0.7–2.5 %)
9 (8–13)
5400
0.7 %
16
3000
1.2 %
7
52,500
Whooping cough 4800 (2800–7700)
1.4 % (0.7–2.3 %)
10 (8–13)
13,000
1.8 %
14
3000
1.2 %
10
15,300
Malaria 4200 (2400–7200)
1.2 % (0.6–2.2 %)
11 (8–13)
13,000
1.8 %
13
2,600
1.1 %
12
18,400
Diabetes mellitus 3700 (2000–5900)
1.0 % (0.5–1.8 %)
12 (9–14)
10,600
1.4 %
15
3500
1.4 %
9
11,700
Preterm birth complications 2,400 (1,200–4,200)
0.7 % (0.3–1.3 %)
13 (10–16)
22,100
3.0 %
8
1500
0.6 %
13
17,300
Neonatal encephalopathy 1600 (1000–3000)
0.5 % (0.3–0.9 %)
14 (12–17)
38,700
2.7 %
5
1200
0.5 %
14
12,300
Meningitis 1500 (800–2700)
0.4 % (0.2–0.8 %)
15 (13–17)
4200
0.6 %
17
1000
0.4 %
15
15,300
Measles 1200 (700–2000)
0.3 % (0.2–0.6 %)
16 (14–17)
2800
0.4 %
19
700
0.3 %
16
14,400
Epilepsy 1100 (600–2100)
0.3 % (0.2–0.6 %)
17 (14–17)
17,300
2.3 %
10
700
0.3 %
17
3300
Cirrhosis 400 (200–600)
0.1 % (0.1–0.2 %)
18 (18–18)
13,700
1.8 %
12
500
0.2 %
18
12,300
Cervical cancer <100 (0–100)
0.0 % (0.0–0.0 %)
19 (19–20)
3200
0.4 %
18
< 100
0.0 %
19
6500
Breast cancer < 100 (0–100)
0.0 % (0.0–0.0 %)
20 (19–20)
2500
0.3 %
20
< 100
0.0 %
20
3600