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Table 2 Clinical characteristics by quartiles of serum neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) levels in obese subjects

From: Association of circulating neuregulin 4 with metabolic syndrome in obese adults: a cross-sectional study

Variables Serum Nrg4 level P value for trend*
Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
Sample size 303 302 304 303  
Serum Nrg4, ng/mL 1.95 (1.56–2.23) 2.88 (2.70–3.10) 3.90 (3.59–4.31) 6.62 (5.41–9.13) < 0.001
Age, years 52.2 ± 7.7 53.4 ± 7.1 53.4 ± 7.1 54.4 ± 7.1 0.570
Gender (male), n (%) 126 (41.6) 84 (27.8) 77 (25.3) 61 (20.1) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 27.5 ± 2.8 27.05 ± 2.7 27.2 ± 2.6 26.7 ± 2.7** 0.104
Resting energy expenditure, kcal/day 1476.6 ± 189.3 1415.4 ± 191.8*** 1414.1 ± 165.3*** 1384.3 ± 156.0*** 0.491
Waist circumference, cm 95.2 ± 7.3 93.4 ± 7.5 93.9 ± 6.9 92.8 ± 7.1** 0.068
Current smokers, n (%) 57 (18.8) 37 (12.3) 35 (11.5) 29 (9.6) 0.005
Systolic BP, mmHg 134.1 ± 17.6 133.0 ± 17.5 134.3 ± 18.3 131.9 ± 16.8 0.286
Diastolic BP, mmHg 79.8 ± 10.3 79.3 ± 10.9 79.6 ± 10.8 78.3 ± 10.5 0.658
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 2.3 (1.1–2.3) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 0.522
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.9 ± 1.1 5.9 ± 1.1 5.9 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.1 0.396
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.0 0.353
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 0.302
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 6.3 ± 2.0 6.2 ± 1.9 6.1 ± 1.6 5.9 ± 1.2*** 0.009
2-h glucose, mmol/L 9.1 ± 4.3 9.0 ± 4.1 9.0 ± 4.0 8.7 ± 3.6 0.255
HOMA-IR 2.99 (2.09–4.38) 3.08 (2.07–4.26) 2.99 (2.17–4.29) 2.74 (2.05–3.99) 0.229
Body fat mass, kg 24.1 ± 5.4 23.9 ± 5.6 24.4 ± 5.3 23.8 ± 5.1** 0.047
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 204 (67.3) 205 (67.9) 198 (65.1) 174 (57.4)** 0.006
Components of metabolic syndrome     
Raised blood pressure, n (%) 190 (62.7) 181 (59.7) 175 (57.6) 162 (53.3)** 0.021
Raised fasting glucose, n (%) 191 (63.0) 188 (61.8) 174 (57.2)** 164 (54.0)*** < 0.001
Raised triglycerides, n (%) 141 (46.5) 143 (47.2) 144 (47.4) 121 (39.9) 0.446
Reduced HDL-cholesterol, n (%) 76 (25.1) 113 (37.3)*** 95 (31.3) 98 (32.3) 0.521
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. *Adjusted for age and gender
  3. **P < 0.05 compared with Q1 of serum Nrg4
  4. ***P < 0.01 compared with Q1 of serum Nrg4
  5. Nrg4 Neuregulin 4, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance