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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the Gipuzkoa and Sabadell subcohorts. Count and mean values are presented (percentage and standard deviation in parenthesis)

From: Maternal urinary metabolic signatures of fetal growth and associated clinical and environmental factors in the INMA study

  Gipuzkoa
(n = 419)a
Sabadell first trimester
(n = 394)
Sabadell third trimester
(n = 469)
P b
Maternal education: Primary or without education 56 (13.4%) 108 (27.5%) 108 (27.5%)  
 Secondary 147 (35.1%) 160 (40.6%) 160 (40.6%) ***
 University 216 (51.6%) 123 (31.2%) 123 (31.2%) ***
Small for gestational age 34 (8.1%) 45 (11.4%) 45 (11.4%) ***
Preterm birth (<37 weeks) 8 (1.9%) 11 (2.8%) 11 (2.8%)  
Parity:nulliparous 231 (55.1) 219 (55.5) 261 (55.6)  
Child sex: Males 218 (52.0%) 197 (50.0%) 241 (51.4%) *
Body mass index before pregnancy: < 18.5 (Underweight) 12 (2.9%) 24 (6.1%) 27 (5.8%) **
 18.5–25 (Healthy) 320 (76.4%) 268 (68%) 310 (66.1%)  
 25.1–30 (Overweight) 57 (13.6%) 72 (18.3%) 93 (19.8%)  
 >30 (Obese) 30 (7.2%) 30 (7.6%) 39 (8.3%)  
Birth weight (g) 3310 (440) 3240 (410) 3260 (420)  
Gestational week at birth 39.7 (1.3) 39.7 (1.4) 39.7 (1.4)  
  1. aSince the population in Gipuzkoa subcohorts at weeks 12 and 34 were almost identical (only 5 women are different in the third trimester), characteristics are presented for the combined subcohorts at weeks 12 and 34 for a total of 419 women
  2. bP values were calculated using the χ2 test (categorical variables) or Mann–Whitney test (continuous) between Sabadell women (week 34 subcohort) and Gipuzkoa women. Numbers do not add because of missing values in variables (presented in Additional file 3)
  3. Legend: * p-value<0.05; ** p-value<0.01; ***p-value<0.001