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Table 1 Characteristics of the population by locality and sex

From: Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans – Is the burden in today’s Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? The RODAM study

  Rural Ghanaians Urban Ghanaians Amsterdam Ghanaians Berlin Ghanaians London Ghanaians
Men (n = 405) (n = 415) (n = 609) (n = 297) (n = 410)
Age, years 46.2 (45.0–47.5) 46.5 (45.4–47.7) 48.4 (47.7–49.2) 45.8 (44.6–47.0) 46.1 (45.0–47.1)
Education level, %      
 None or elementary 39.0 (34.4–43.8) 22.2 (18.4–26.4) 20.5 (17.5–23.9) 6.1 (3.9–9.4) 3.9 (2.4–6.3)
 Lower secondary 36.1 (31.5–40.9) 42.4 (37.7–47.2) 40.6 (36.7–44.5) 47.8 (42.2–53.5) 24.9 (20.9–29.3)
 Higher secondary 13.3 (10.4–17.0) 20.5 (16.9–24.6) 25.1 (21.8–28.7) 28.3 (23.4–33.7) 16.8 (13.5–20.8)
 Tertiary education 5.7 (3.8–8.4) 9.2 (6.7–12.3) 8.2 (6.2–10.7) 17.5 (13.6–22.3) 41.0 (36.3–45.8)
 Unknown 5.9 (4.0–8.7) 5.8 (6.9–8.5) 5.6 (4.0–7.7) 0.3 (0.0–2.4) 13.4 (10.4–17.7)
Length of stay in Europe, years NA NA 18.7 (18.0–19.4) 16.8 (15.5–18.2) 15.1 (14.1–16.1)
First generation migrants, % NA NA 98.6 (97.1–99.3) 99.3 (97.2–99.9) 98.6 (96.7–99.4)
Current smoking, yes, % 5.8 (3.8–8.6) 3.3 (1.9–5.6) 8.1 (6.1–10.7) 14.8 (11.2–19.3) 1.4 (1.0–3.2)
BMI, kg/m2 20.9 (20.6–21.2) 24.1 (23.8–24.5) 27.0 (26.7–27.3) 26.4 (26.0–26.9) 27.5 (27.1–27.9)
Waist, cm 76.8 (76.0–77.6) 84.7 (83.7–85.7) 91.1 (87.2–95.1) 91.2 (89.9–92.5) 75.3 (61.2–89.4)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.2 (4.1–4.3) 5.1 (5.0–5.2) 5.1 (5.0–5.1) 5.2 (5.0–5.3) 5.0 (4.9–5.1)
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.1 (5.0–5.2) 5.8 (5.5–6.0) 5.7 (5.5–5.9) 5.5 (5.2–5.7) 5.3 (5.2–5.5)
Systolic BP, mmHg 123.9 (122.0–125.7) 131.0 (129.0–133.0) 138.2 (136.8–139.6) 138.9 (136.8–141.0) 136.6 (134.9–138.3)
Diastolic BP, mmHg 77.4 (76.3–78.4) 82.2 (81.0–83.5) 87.9 (87.0–88.8) 88.7 (87.4–90.0) 84.6 (83.6–85.7)
Known diabetes, % 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 7.0 ( 4.9–9.9) 11.7 (9.3–14.5) 12.8 (9.4–17.1) 7.6 (5.4–10.6)
Newly detected diabetes, % 2.0 (1.0–3.9) 3.9 (2.4–6.2) 2.1 (1.2–3.6) 2.7 (1.4–5.3) 2.2 (1.1–4.2)
Women (n = 638) (n = 1034) (n = 931) (n = 250) (n = 670)
Age, years 46.7 (45.7–47.6) 44.7 (44.1–45.4) 45.6 (45.0–46.1) 44.7 (43.5–45.8) 47.7 (46.9–48.5)
Education level, %      
 None or elementary 62.2 (58.4–65.9) 50.5 (47.5–53.6) 40.8 (37.7–44.0) 11.6 (8.2–16.2) 10.0 (8.0–12.5)
 Lower secondary 26.0 (22.8–29.6) 35.9 (33.0–38.9) 30.7 (27.8–33.7) 54.0 (47.8–60.1) 28.9 (26.5–33.4)
 Higher secondary 3.0 (1.9–4.6) 8.5 (7.0–10.4) 17.9 (15.5–20.5) 24.8 (19.8–30.5) 24.2 (21.1–27.6)
 Tertiary education 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 2.7 (1.9–3.9) 3.8 (2.7–5.2) 7.6 (4.9–11.6) 22.1 (19.1–25.3)
 Unknown 6.9 (5.2–9.2) 2.3 (1.6–3.4) 6.9 (5.4–8.7) 6.9 (5.4–8.7) 2.0 (1.0–4.7)
Length of stay in Europe, years NA NA 17.7 (17.2–18.2) 16.9 (15.7–18.2) 17.4 (16.5–18.3)
First generation migrants, % NA NA 99.5 (98.8–99.8) 99.6 (97.2–99.9) 96.9 (95.2–98.1)
Current smoking, yes, % 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.1 (0.0–1.0) 2.1 (1.3–3.4) 3.3 (1.6 (6.3) 0.2 (0.0–1.2)
BMI, kg/m2 23.7 (23.3–24.0) 28.0 (27.7–28.3) 30.3 (30.0–30.6) 29.1 (28.5–29.7) 30.9 (30.5–31.3)
Waist, cm 81.9 (78.2–85.7) 90.0 (87.6–92.4) 94.7 (92.0–97.4) 93.7 (92.3–95.1) 80.4 (69.8–91.0)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.7 (4.6–4.8) 5.3 (5.2–5.3) 5.0 (4.9–5.1) 5.1 (5.0–5.3) 5.0 (4.9–5.1)
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.2 (5.1–5.3) 5.5 (5.4–5.7) 5.4 (5.3–5.4) 4.8 (4.7–5.0) 5.2 (5.1–5.3)
Systolic BP, mmHg 123.7 (122.0–125.5) 124.7 (123.5–125.9) 131.9 (130.8–133.0) 132.0 (129.7–134.3) 134.4 (133.1–135.7)
Diastolic BP, mmHg 76.9 (76.0–77.9) 78.3 (77.6–79.0) 82.0 (81.4–82.7) 83.6 (82.2–85.0) 82.3 (81.5–83.0)
Known diabetes, % 3.3 (2.2–5.0) 4.9 (3.8–6.4) 8.3 (6.7–10.2) 8.8 (5.9–13.0) 7.0 (5.3–9.2)
Newly detected diabetes, % 2.4 (1.4–3.9) 3.5 (2.5–4.8) 1.0 (0.5–1.8) 0.8 (0.2–3.2) 1.8 (1.0–3.1)
  1. Values are means or percentages with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals
  2. BP, blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; NA, not available