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Table 5 Clinical and molecular prognostic factors of overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival in the validation cohort (n = 142 IDH wt patients) based on a univariate log-rank test and a multivariate Cox regression model

From: Spatial transcriptome analysis reveals Notch pathway-associated prognostic markers in IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma involving the subventricular zone

  OS PFS
  HR (95 % CI) p value HR (95 % CI) p value
Univariate      
 Clinico-pathological parameters
  Age at first diagnosis 1.05 (1.03–1.07) 4.0E-07 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.020
  Gender (male) 0.99 (0.70–1.41) 0.971 1.33 (0.87–2.04) 0.187
  Radiotherapy 0.29 (0.16–0.52) 9.7E-06 0.99 (0.31–3.13) 0.983
  Chemotherapy 0.41 (0.28–0.59) 1.4E-06 0.58 (0.37–0.91) 0.017
  Preoperative KPS 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.002 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.810
  MGMT methylation 0.83 (0.53–1.29) 0.401 1.15 (0.69–1.92) 0.588
  GTR 0.42 (0.28–0.62) 8.8E-06 0.78 (0.49–1.23) 0.286
  Location (SVZ+) 1.39 (0.99–1.96) 0.056 1.07 (0.71–1.61) 0.743
  Location (II vs. III) 1.19 (0.69–2.08) 0.526 1.30 (0.66–2.60) 0.445
 Candidate genes      
  Cut-offs     
  IGFBP5 Q1 1.62 (1.09–2.39) 0.015 1.19 (0.73–1.94) 0.475
  DLL3 Median 1.61 (1.08–2.39) 0.017 1.64 (1.01–2.68) 0.043
  NTRK2 Q1 0.66 (0.44–1.00) 0.049 0.64 (0.39–1.07) 0.086
  PIR Q1 0.62 (0.41–0.95) 0.025 0.66 (0.40–1.08) 0.092
  HES4 Q3 1.55 (1.03–2.32) 0.034 1.31 (0.81–2.13) 0.268
Multivariate      
 Clinico-pathological parameters
  Age at first diagnosis 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.024 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.198
  Radiotherapy 0.22 (0.08–0.58) 0.002   
  Chemotherapy 0.55 (0.29–1.05) 0.072 0.62 (0.36–1.06) 0.082
  Preoperative KPS 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.504   
  GTR 0.48 (0.29–0.83) 0.007   
  Location (SVZ+) 1.82 (1.09–3.04) 0.023   
 Candidate genes
  Cut-offs     
  IGFBP5 Q1 0.82 (0.48–1.42) 0.488   
  DLL3 Median 1.47 (0.83–2.60) 0.181 1.65 (1.00–2.70) 0.046
  NTRK2 Q1 0.75 (0.41–1.38) 0.358   
  PIR Q1 0.75 (0.41–1.36) 0.344   
  HES4 Q3 2.03 (1.06–3.90) 0.033   
  1. Gene expression data were dichotomized according to the median in “high” and “low” expression (“median cut-off”) and according to quartiles either in “top 25 % expression” and “<75 % expression” (“Q1 cut-off”) or “bottom 25 % expression” and “>25 % expression” (“Q3 cut-off”). p values < 0.05 are displayed in bold letters
  2. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, KPS Karnofsky performance score, MGMT O6-methylguanine-DNA methytransferase, GTR gross total resection