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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by nutritional status, modified intent-to-treat population (N = 397)

From: Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in relation to drug exposure in children with and without severe acute malnutrition: an open comparative intervention study in Mali and Niger

  SAM (N = 131) Non-SAM (N = 266) P
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Season at inclusion, n (%)    0.943
  High transmission (June–October) 66 (50.4) 133 (50.0)
  Low transmission (November–January) 65 (49.6) 133 (50.0)
 Age in months, mean (SD) 16.9 (7.7) 28.2 (13.0) <0.0001
 Male gender n (%) 65 (49.6) 122(45.9) 0.481
 Rural residence, n (%) 126 (96.2) 260 (97.7) 0.373
 Education of mother, n (%)    0.051
  None 114 (87.0) 210 (78.9)
  Primary or secondary 17 (13.0) 56 (21.1)
 Has a mosquito net 107 (81.7) 215 (80.8) 0.838
  In good state 47 (35.9) 92 (34.6) 0.648
  Used it all nights the previous week 95 (72.5) 200 (75.2) 0.567
Anthropometric characteristics
 Weight in kg, mean (SD) 6.9 (1.1) 10.6 (2.5) <0.0001
 Height in cm, mean (SD) 74.4 (6.8) 84.5 (10.3) <0.0001
 Weight-for-height z-score, mean (SD) −3.42 (0.55) −1.01 (0.92) <0.0001
 MUAC in mm, mean (SD) 116.8 (6.6) 139.2 (12.1) <0.0001
 Weight-for-age z-score, mean (SD) −3.39 (0.58) −1.41 (0.93) <0.0001
 Stunting (height-for-age z-score < –2), n (%) 62 (47.3) 71 (26.7) <0.0001
Clinical characteristics
 Measured temperature > 37.5 °C, n (%) 115 (89.2) 226 (85.6) 0.331
 Fatigue, n (%) 112 (85.5) 198 (74.4) 0.012
 Anorexia, n (%) 110 (84.0) 178 (66.9) <0.0001
 Vomiting, n (%) 27 (20.6) 58 (21.8) 0.785
 Diarrhea, n (%) 37 (28.2) 21 (7.9) <0.0001
 Cough or bronchitis, n (%) 55 (42.0) 87 (32.7) 0.070
 ENT (otitis media, rhinorrhea), n (%) 52 (39.7) 113 (42.5) 0.596
 Splenomegaly, n (%) 25 (19.1) 46 (17.3) 0.662
Biological characteristics
 Parasite density (parasites/μL), median 10880 11520 0.7648
 IQR 3683–32160 4200–39240
 Presence of gametocytes 40 (30.5) 63 (23.7) 0.143
 Hemoglobin concentration (g/dL), mean (SD) 8.6 (1.5) 8.8 (1.5) 0.196
 Hemoglobin <10 g/dL, n (%)* 104 (79.4) 196 (73.7) 0.214
 Hemoglobin <7 g/dL, n (%) 20 (15.3) 32 (12.0) 0.369
  1. SAM severe acute malnutrition, SD standard deviation, MUAC mid-upper arm circumference, ENT, ear nose and throat, IQR interquartile range