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Table 4 Cox univariable and multivariable modelling of factors associated with risk of reinfection by day 28 in the modified intent-to-treat population (N = 397, 62 reinfections)

From: Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in relation to drug exposure in children with and without severe acute malnutrition: an open comparative intervention study in Mali and Niger

   Univariable Multivariable
Variable n/Na (%) HR (95 % CI) P HR (95 % CI) P
Severe malnutrition by age group    0.0043   0.0111
  ≤ 21 months    
  Non-SAM 9/98 (9.2) 0.50 (0.24–1.06) 0.51 (0.24–1.07)
  SAM 12/99 (12.1) 0.68 (0.35–1.33) 0.74 (0.38–1.45)
  > 21 months    
  Non-SAM 30/168 (17.9) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
  SAM 11/32 (34.4) 2.25 (1.12–4.48) 2.10 (1.05–4.22)
Study site    0.054   0.244
 Mali 61/359 (17.0) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
 Niger 1/38 (2.6) 0.14 (0.02–1.04) 0.31 (0.04–2.25)
Parasite density at inclusion (parasites/μL), per 1 log10 increase 28520 vs. 10200b 1.22 (1.03–1.45) 0.019 1.10 (0.95–1.27) 0.189
Season at inclusion    <0.0001   <0.0001
 Nov–Jan (low) 5/198 (2.5) 1 (Ref) 1 (Ref)
 Jun–Oct (high) 57/199 (28.6) 12.43 (4.98–31.01) 10.27 (4.07–25.95)
Has a mosquito net    0.047 ___ NSc
 No 18/75 (24.0) 1 (Ref)
 Yes 44/322 (13.7) 0.57 (0.33–0.99)
Stunting (HFA < –2 z-score)    0.042 ___ NSc
 No 49/264 (18.6) 1 (Ref)
 Yes 13/133 (9.8) 0.53 (0.29–0.98)
Lumefantrine dose-weight     ___ NSc
  > 60 mg/kg 45/324 (13.9) 1 (Ref)  
  ≤ 60 mg/kg 17/73 (23.3) 1.83 (1.05–3.20) 0.033
  1. Variables tested in univariable analysis were presence of severe acute malnutrition, age, study site, parasite density at inclusion, season at inclusion, sex, education level, type of residence, possession and use of a mosquito net, presence of stunting, moderate anemia, severe anemia, gametocytes at inclusion, early vomiting after treatment administration, and lumefantrine dose-weight received (artemether dose-weight was collinear with lumefantrine dose-weight as fixed combinations were used). Only variables with P < 0.10 are displayed here. Age, study site, and parasite density at inclusion were forced in multivariable models regardless of significance. Other variables were kept if P < 0.05
  2. aN, total number; n, number with reinfection by day 28
  3. bMedian value in reinfected versus non-reinfected children are displayed
  4. cMosquito net possession, stunting, and lumefantrine dose-weight did not remain significantly associated with reinfection in multivariable analysis
  5. SAM severe acute malnutrition, HR hazard ratio, CI Wald confidence interval, Ref reference, HFA height-for-age ratio, NS not significant