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Table 1 Prospective studies of alcohol consumption and risk of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage

From: Differing association of alcohol consumption with different stroke types: a systematic review and meta-analysis

       No. of stroke cases   
Study Cohort name, country No. of subjects Age, years Men, % Follow-up, years IS ICH SAH NOS score Adjustments
Donahue et al., 1986 [14] Honolulu Heart Program, USA 8006 45–69 100 12 190 44 32 8 Age, smoking, BMI, hypertensive status, serum cholesterol, uric acid glucose, and hematocrit concentrations
Stampfer et al., 1988 [15] Nurses’ Health Study, USA 87,526 34–59 0 3.8 a 28 7 Age, smoking, obesity, exercise, family history of myocardial infarction, menopausal status and hormone use, history of hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, intake of cholesterol, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat
Iso et al., 1995 [16] Rural Japanese Cohorts, Japan 2890 40–69 100 10.5 104 8 Age, smoking, hypertension, serum total cholesterol, and diabetes
Kiyohara et al., 1995 [17] The Hisayama Study, Japan 1621 ≥ 40 44 26 244 60 9 Age, sex, BMI, hypertension, electrocardiographic abnormalities, heart rate, glucose intolerance, serum cholesterol, and smoking
Leppälä et al., 1999 [18] Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, Finland 26,556 50–69 100 6.1 733 95 83 7 Age, randomized treatment assignment, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity, serum total cholesterol, history of heart disease, diabetes
Sankai et al., 2000 [19] Six Japanese Communities, Japan 12,372 40–69 40 9.4 71 8 Age, sex, smoking, BMI, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, diabetes
Suh et al., 2001 [20] Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study, Korea 114,793 35–59 100 5.4 373 98 6 Age, smoking, BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total serum cholesterol
Klatsky et al., 2001 [21] Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program Cohort, USA 128,934 < 40–70+ 44 18 2014 6 Age, sex, race, education, smoking, BMI
Klatsky et al., 2002 [22] Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program Cohort, USA 128,934 < 40–70+ 44 18 299 133 6 Age, sex, race, education, smoking, BMI
Djousse et al., 2002 [23] Framingham Study, USA 9171 ≥ 50 42 8.8 441 7 Age, smoking, BMI, diabetes
Iso et al., 2004 [24] Japan Public Health Centre-Based Prospective Study, Japan 19,356 40–59 100 11.0 319 219 73 6 Age, education, public health centers, smoking, BMI, sports at leisure time, history of diabetes, intakes of fruit, vegetable, and fish
Iwashita et al., 2005 [25] Kyushu Lipid Intervention Study, Japan 4349 45–74 100 5 81 6 Age, smoking, BMI, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, prior use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, history of angina, hypertension, and diabetes
Mukamal et al, 2005 [26] Cardiovascular Health Study, USA 4410 ≥ 65 36 9.2 434 7 Age, sex, geographic region, parental history of myocardial infarction, smoking, BMI, physical activity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, aspirin use, intakes of energy, vitamin E, folate, saturated fat, trans fats, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, and dietary fiber
Nielsen et al., 2005 [27] Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark 12,096 21–98 44 15 786 8 Age, sex, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, history of myocardial infarction and diabetes, Forced Expiratory Volume 1
Elkind et al., 2006 [28] Northern Manhattan Study, USA 3176 ≥ 40 37 5.9 172 8 Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes
Bazzano et al., 2007 [29] China National Hypertension Survey Epidemiology Follow-up Study, China 64,338 ≥ 40 100 7.7 1724 8 Age, geographic region, urban or rural residence, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity, diabetes
Sturgeon et al, 2007 [30] Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and Cardiovascular Health Study, USA 21,680 ≥ 45 45 and 42 12.2 135 5 Age
Chiuve et al., 2008 [31]b Health Professionals Follow-up Study, USA 43,685 40–75 100 18 600 6 Age, calendar year, family history of myocardial infarction, aspirin use, vitamin E supplementation
Lu et al., 2008 [32] Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study, Sweden 45,449 30–50 0 11 111 47 7 Age, education, BMI, smoking, parity and age at first birth, oral contraceptive use
Sandvei et al., 2009 [33] Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway 61,371 ≥ 20 49 22 132 4 Age, sex
Bos et al., 2010 [34] European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands Cohort, The Netherlands 10,530 20–70 0 9.4 165 8 Age, cohort, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity, menopausal status, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, antihypertensive medication, intakes of energy, vitamin E, vitamin C, saturated fat, and fiber
Rist et al., 2010 [35] Physicians’ Health Study, USA 21,860 40–84 100 21.6 1157 8 Age, smoking, BMI, exercise, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, diabetes, and migraine
Zhang et al., 2011 [36] Six geographic areas of Finland 36,686 25–74 47 13.7 1167 8 Age, study year, sex, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level, family history of stroke, diabetes, intake of fruit and vegetables
Higashiyama et al., 2011 [37] Suita Study, Japan 2336 30–79 100 12.5 78 7 Age, smoking, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes
Drogan et al., 2012 [38] European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort, Germany 2175 35–65 37 8.2 169 7 Age, education, smoking, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, plasma total cholesterol levels, and non-alcohol energy intake
Jimenez et al., 2012 [39] Nurses’ Health Study, USA 83,578 30–55 0 20.3 1206 8 Age, education, marital status, family history of heart disease, smoking, BMI, physical activity, postmenopausal status, hormone therapy use, aspirin use, high cholesterol, history of heart disease and diabetes, bilateral oophorectomy, multivitamin use, diet score
Ikehara et al., 2013 [40] Japan Public Health Centre-Based Prospective Study, Japan 47,100 40–69 0 16.7 964 532 338 8 Age, area, smoking, BMI, sports at leisure-time, history of hypertension and diabetes, flushing after alcohol drinking, mental stress, menopausal status
Kadlecová et al., 2015 [41] Swedish Twin Registry, Sweden 11,644 ≤ 60 30 29.1 1846 8 Age, sex, smoking, BMI, exercise, history of coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and depression, stress reactivity
Jones et al., 2015 [42] Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, USA 12,433 45–64 45 22.6 773 c 6 Age, sex, center-race interaction, education, smoking; IS analyses were further adjusted for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, history of coronary heart disease and diabetes, marital status, diet score
Larsson et al., 2016 (current study) Cohort of Swedish Men, Sweden 39,941 45–79 100 11.9 2216 350 82 8 Age, education, family history of myocardial infarction, smoking, BMI, exercise, walking/bicycling, history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes, aspirin use, diet score
Larsson et al., 2016 (current study) Swedish Mammography Cohort, Sweden 33,646 49–83 0 11.9 1608 205 94 8 Age, education, family history of myocardial infarction, smoking, BMI, exercise, walking/bicycling, history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes, aspirin use, diet score
  1. BMI body mass index, HS hemorrhagic stroke, ICH intracerebral hemorrhage, IS ischemic stroke, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa Scale, SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage
  2. aThis study also reported results for ischemic stroke, but results for this stroke type were later reported in another study with longer follow-up [39]
  3. bThis study also reported results from the Nurses’ Health Study, but results from this cohort were later reported in another study with longer follow-up [39]
  4. cThis study also reported results for intracerebral hemorrhage, but results for this stroke type were also reported in another article [30] that combined data from this cohort with those from another cohort and included a larger number of intracerebral hemorrhage cases