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Table 2 Relative risks of stroke types for light-to-moderate and high-to-heavy alcohol consumption, overall and stratified by geographic area, sex, and study quality

From: Differing association of alcohol consumption with different stroke types: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Alcohol consumption
Light-to-moderate (≤ 2 drinks/day) High-to-heavy (> 2 drinks/day)
No.a RR (95 % CI) I 2b No.a RR (95 % CI) I 2b
Ischemic stroke
 All studies 24 0.91 (0.88–0.94) 9.1 % 23 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 0 %
 Geographic area
  United States 9 0.90 (0.85–0.94) 7.7 % 8 1.12 (1.01–1.24) 0 %
  Europe 9 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 11.1 % 8 1.14 (1.04–1.25) 0 %
 Asia 5 0.87 (0.78–0.98) 10.6 % 6 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 30.6 %
 Sex
  Men 12 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 18.4 % 10 1.11 (1.00–1.23) 15.2 %
  Women 7 0.88 (0.83–0.95) 0 % 6 1.15 (0.96–1.36) 0 %
  Womenc 7 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 32.2 % 7 0.96 (0.85–1.08) 7.9 %
 Study quality
  NOS ≥ 7 18 0.90 (0.86–0.93) 0 % 17 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 0 %
  NOS < 7 5 0.87 (0.81–0.94) 13.6 % 4 1.10 (0.97–1.25) 9.3 %
Intracerebral hemorrhage
 All studies 11 0.95 (0.84–1.07) 10.2 % 9 1.45 (1.18–1.78) 55.0 %
 Geographic area
  United States 3 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 33.4 % 2 1.38 (0.86–2.21) 33.6 %
  Europe 4 0.92 (0.77–1.10) 0 % 3 1.39 (0.98–1.96) 40.2 %
  Asia 4 1.09 (0.79–1.49) 34.1 % 4 1.56 (1.13–2.17) 69.7 %
 Sex
  Men 5 0.98 (0.78–1.24) 26.4 % 5 1.35 (1.06–1.72) 59.4 %
  Women 3 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0 % 2 2.23 (1.47–3.38) 0 %
  Womenc 3 0.81 (0.55–1.19) 37.6 % 3 1.54 (1.08–2.18) 29.6 %
Study quality
  NOS ≥ 7 7 0.99 (0.84–1.18) 7.5 % 6 1.68 (1.32–2.14) 25.4 %
  NOS < 7 4 0.90 (0.76–1.07) 17.0 % 3 1.20 (0.92–1.56) 51.9 %
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
 All studies 10 1.16 (0.98–1.37) 0 % 9 1.57 (1.18–2.09) 39.0 %
 Geographic area
  United States 3 1.46 (1.02–2.10) 21.4 % 2 2.04 (1.12–3.73) 24.4 %
  Europe 4 1.03 (0.81–1.30) 0 % 3 1.17 (0.58–2.37) 58.9 %
  Asia 3 1.26 (0.81–1.97) 19.8 % 4 1.57 (1.10–2.24) 31.3 %
 Sex
  Men 5 1.06 (0.69–1.60) 29.9 % 5 1.48 (0.96–2.28) 51.0 %
  Women 3 1.38 (1.04–1.85) 0 % 2 1.90 (1.16–3.13) 0 %
  Womenc 3 1.56 (1.01–2.38) 19.5 % 3 1.54 (1.08–2.20) 0 %
 Study quality
  NOS ≥ 7 7 1.25 (0.97–1.62) 13.4 % 3 1.44 (1.01–2.06) 16.5 %
  NOS < 7 4 1.10 (0.87–1.39) 0 % 6 1.57 (1.03–2.40) 50.0 %
  1. CI confidence interval, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa Scale, RR relative risk
  2. aNumber of studies that contributed data to each category of alcohol consumption and strata
  3. bTest for between-study heterogeneity. I2 values < 30 %, 30–75 %, and > 75 % were interpreted as no or low heterogeneity, moderate heterogeneity, and notable heterogeneity, respectively
  4. cSensitivity analysis in which light-to-moderate alcohol consumption for women was defined as ≤ 1 drink/day and high-to-heavy consumption was defined as > 1 drink/day