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Table 1 Characteristics of the included prospective cohort studies

From: Dietary magnesium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Author, year Location Study name Sex Age range (years) Follow-up (years) Cases (cohort size) Dietary assessment Quality score
Adebamowo et al., 2015 [20] US Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) F 30–55 in NHS I; 25–42 in NHS II 30 in NHS I; 22 in NHS II 3780 stroke cases (86,149 in NHS I; 94,715 in NHS II) Validated FFQ 8
Adebamowo et al., 2015 [37] US Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) M 40–75 24 1547 stroke cases (42,669) Validated FFQ 9
Al-Delaimy et al., 2004 [38] US HPFS M 40–75 12 1449 CHD cases (39,633) Validated FFQ 9
Ascherio et al., 1998 [39] US HPFS M 40–75 8 328 stroke cases (43,738) Validated FFQ 9
Bain et al., 2015 [40] UK European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort M/F 40–75 5.8 928 stroke cases (25,639) 7-day dietary recall 9
Chiuve et al., 2011 [41] US NHS F 30–55 26 505 sudden cardiac deaths (88,375) Validated FFQ 9
Chiuve et al., 2013 [42] US NHS F 30–55 28 3614 CHD cases (86,323) Validated FFQ 8
Dai et al., 2013 [21] China Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) M/F 40–70 in SWHS; 40–74 in SMHS NA 6224 total deaths, 1947 CVD deaths, 906 CHD deaths, 1041 stroke deaths (136,442) Validated FFQ 9
de Oliveira Otto et al., 2012 [43] US Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants (MESA) M/F 45–84 6.2 279 CVD case, 399 T2D cases (6814) Validated FFQ 7
Guasch-Ferré et al., 2014 [44] Spain Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) M/F 55–80 4.8 323 total deaths, 81 CVD deaths, 277 CVD cases (7216) Validated FFQ 7
Hata et al., 2013 [45] Japan The Hisayama Study M/F 40–79 15.6 417 T2D cases (1999) Validated FFQ 9
Hodge et al., 2004 [46] Australia Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study M/F 40–69 4 365 T2D cases (31,641) Validated FFQ 8
Hopping et al., 2010 [47] Hawaii, US Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) M/F 45–75 14 8587 T2D cases (75,512) Validated FFQ 8
Hruby et al., 2014 [48] US Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring cohort M/F 26–81 7 179 T2D cases (2582) Validated FFQ 7
Huang et al., 2015 [49] Taiwan, China Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan M/F 65–97 9 475 total deaths, 124 CVD deaths, 231 diabetes cases (1400) 24-h dietary recall and validated FFQ 7
Iso et al., 1999 [50] US NHS F 34–59 14 690 stroke cases (85,764) Validated FFQ 8
Kaluza et al., 2010 [51] Sweden Cohort of Swedish Men M 45–79 10 2358 total deaths, 819 CVD deaths (23,366) Validated FFQ 8
Kao et al., 1999 [52] US Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study M/F 45–64 6 1106 T2D cases (12,128) 12-h dietary recall 8
Kim et al., 2010 [53] US Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study M/F 18–30 20 330 diabetes cases (4497) Validated FFQ 9
Kirii et al., 2010 [54] Japan Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) M/F 40–65 5 459 diabetes cases (11,592) Validated FFQ 7
Konishi et al., 2015 [55] Japan The Takayama Study M/F >35 10 438 diabetes case (13,525) Validated FFQ 8
Larsson et al., 2008 [56] Finland Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study M 50-69 13.6 2702 stroke cases (26,556) Validated FFQ 9
Larsson et al., 2011 [57] Sweden Swedish Mammography Cohort F 49-83 10.4 1680 stroke cases (34,670) Validated FFQ 7
Levitan et al., 2013 [58] US Women’s Health Initiative F 50-79 4.6 1433 total deaths (161,808) Validated FFQ 7
Liao et al., 1998 [59] US ARIC M/F 45-64 4-7 319 CHD cases (13,922) Validated FFQ 8
Lin et al., 2013 [60] Taiwan, China Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Two-township Study (CVDFACTS) M/F >18 12 123 stroke cases (2061) Validated FFQ 8
Lopez-Ridaura et al., 2004 [61] US NHS and HPFS M/F 30-55 in NHS; 40-75 in HPFS 18 in NHS; 12 in HPFS 4085 T2D cases in NHS (85,060); 1333 T2D cases in HPFS (42,872) Validated FFQ 9
Meyer et al., 2000 [62] US Iowa Women’s Health Study F 55-69 6 1141 T2D cases (35,988) Validated FFQ 9
Nanri et al., 2010 [63] Japan Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study M/F 45-75 5 1114 T2D cases (59,791) Validated FFQ 8
Ohira et al., 2009 [64] US ARIC M/F 45-64 15 577 ischemic stroke cases (14,221) Validated FFQ 9
Schulze et al., 2007 [65] Germany EPIC-Potsdam study M/F 35-65 7 844 T2D cases (25,067) Validated FFQ 9
Song et al., 2004 [66] US Women’s Health Study (WHS) F >45 6 918 T2D cases (39,345) Validated FFQ 9
Song et al., 2005 [67] US WHS F >45 10 1037 CVD cases (39,876) Validated FFQ 9
Tao et al., 2016 [68] US Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study F 35-79 7.3 170 all-cause deaths (1170) Validated FFQ 8
Taveira et al., 2016 [69] US Jackson Heart Study M/F 55-74 5 270 heart failure hospitalizations (4916) Validated FFQ 9
van Dam et al., 2006 [70] US Black Women’s Health Study F 21-69 8 1964 T2D cases (41,186) Validated FFQ 9
Villegas et al., 2009 [71] China Shanghai Women’s Health Study F 40-70 6.9 2270 T2D cases (64,191) Validated FFQ 9
Weng et al., 2008 [72] Taiwan, China CVDFACTS M/F >40 10.6 132 ischemic stroke (1772) Validated FFQ 8
Weng et al., 2012 [73] Taiwan, China CVDFACTS M/F >30 4.6 141 T2D cases (1604) Validated FFQ 7
Zhang et al., 2012 [74] Japan JACC M/F 40-79 14.7 2690 CVD deaths, 1227 stroke deaths, 557 CHD deaths, 431 heart failure deaths (58,615) Validated FFQ 8
  1. FFQ Food-frequency questionnaire, NA Not available, T2D type 2 diabetes, CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease