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Table 6 Loneliness, social support and reported contacts with health and social care professionals

From: How effective are volunteers at supporting people in their last year of life? A pragmatic randomised wait-list trial in palliative care (ELSA)

Variables Emotional Loneliness b Emotional loneliness 95% CI Social Loneliness b Social Loneliness 95% CI Social Support, Instrumental b 95% CI Social Support, Emotional b 95% CI Social Support, Total b 95% CI Health and social care professional contact b 95% CI
Intercept 1.71 (1.43 to 1.98) 2.08 (1.85 to 2.30) 3.04 (2.75 to 3.32) 3.03 (2.80 to 3.26) 3.05 (2.81 to 3.28) 1.07 (0.77 to 1.37)
Treatment condition, Immediate –0.20 (–0.58 to 0.17) –0.39 (–0.71 to –0.08)a 0.23 (–0.17 to 0.63) 0.16 (–0.16 to 0.49) 0.19 (–0.14 to 0.52) 0.11 (–0.31 to 0.53)
Phase 1, until week 4 0.02 (–0.29 to 0.32) 0.10 (–0.17 to 0.37) 0.14 (–0.10 to 0.38) –0.07 (–0.28 to 0.15) 0.02 (–0.16 to 0.21) 0.16 (–0.22 to 0.55)
Treatment condition × Time 1 –0.08 (–0.52 to 0.35) –0.20 (–0.58 to 0.18) 0.02 (–0.31 to 0.36) 0.19 (–0.10 to 0.49) 0.13 (–0.13 to 0.39) –0.21 (–0.75 to 0.34)
Phase 2, after week 4 0.02 (–0.20 to 0.23) –0.04 (–0.22 to 0.14) –0.08 (–0.25 to 0.09) 0.08 (–0.07 to 0.22) 0.01 (–0.12 to 0.14) 0.01 (–0.27 to 0.29)
Treatment condition × Time 2 0.07 (0.34 to 0.47) 0.22 (–0.13 to 0.57) 0.03 (–0.28 to 0.35) –0.06 (–0.35 to 0.22) –0.01 (–0.26 to 0.23) –0.11 (–0.64 to 0.42)
  1. aSensitivity analyses controlling for social loneliness at baseline and week 4 did not show a different result pattern (data available upon request)
  2. CI confidence interval