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Table 2 Outcome measures at baseline and 6 months after surgery of patients receiving standard medical care (SMC), Supportive Intervention (SUPPORT) or Expectation Manipulation Intervention (EXPECT) (observed means)

From: Preoperative optimization of patient expectations improves long-term outcome in heart surgery patients: results of the randomized controlled PSY-HEART trial

  (A) SMC (B) SUPPORT (C) EXPECT Test statistic (F scores indicate interaction terms) Significant pre–post comparisons
Disability (PDI)
 Baseline 22.78 (18.36–27.19) 22.14 (17.04–27.23) 25.89 (20.81–30.97) F(2, 102.542) = 4.762; B, C
 Follow-up 20.79 (15.35–26.23) 15.23 (10.82–19.65) 12.19 (8.50–15.89) P = 0.011
Mental quality of life (SF-12)
 Baseline 48.96 (45.71–52.20) 51.60 (48.56–54.63) 47.98 (43.66–52.31) F(2, 94.803) = 4.627; C
 Follow-up 50.58 (47.02–54.14) 52.40 (48.83–55.97) 56.74 (54.29–59.19) P = 0.012
Physical quality of life (SF-12)
 Baseline 40.26 (36.80–43.73) 39.55 (35.82–43.29) 37.15 (34.04–40.26) F(2, 103.928) = 3.186; B, C
 Follow-up 40.28 (36.58–43.98) 45.21 (41.23–49.19) 44.77 (41.13–48.41) P = 0.045
Patient subjective working ability in hours per week follow-up 15.97 (10.50–21.43) 17.14 (10.45–23.80) 25.40 (19.90–30.90) F(2, 74) = 3.325; P = 0.041a ACa, BCa
Physical activity levels (IPAQ)
 Baseline 2668.40 (1919.56–3417.24) 2635.54 (1547.50–3723.57) 2433.63 (1249.51–3617.75) F(2, 72.915) = 4.776; B, C
 Follow-up 2957.64 (2128.50–3786.78) 5388.21 (3618.71–7157.71) 4700.60 (3470.76–5930.45) P = 0.011
Cardiac anxiety (CAQ)
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 2.48 (2.29–2.67) 2.68 (2.47–2.90) 2.67 (2.44–2.89) F(2, 107.021) = 3.980; B, C
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 2.50 (2.31–2.69) 2.34 (2.11–2.57) 2.29 (2.11–2.47) P = 0.022
Anxiety (HADS)
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 4.03 (3.07–4.98) 4.55 (3.42–5.67) 5.17 (3.47–6.86) F(2,102.409) = 1.325;  
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 3.24 (2.42–4.05) 2.52 (1.52–3.51) 3.61 (2.22–4.99) P = 0.270  
Depression (HADS)
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 4.59 (3.60–5.58) 4.00 (2.89–5.11) 5.11 (3.75–6.47) F(2, 99.211) = 2.604;  
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 3.68 (2.62–4.75) 1.88 (1.20–2.57) 2.58 (1.60–3.56) P = 0.079  
Outcome expectations (IPQ-E)
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 12.05 (11.49–12.62) 12.61 (12.10–13.12) 12.37 (11.90–12.83) F(2, 98.882) = 0.084; P = 0.919  
 Post psychological intervention 11.94 (11.32–12.56) 12.29 (11.97–12.60) 12.09 (11.52–12.66)  
Expected personal control (IPQ-E)
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 15.28 (14.74–15.81) 15.24 (14.55–15.92) 14.03 (12.90–15.16) F(2, 103.971) = 8.748; P < 0.001 C
 Post psychological intervention 15.16 (14.43–15.88) 14.91 (14.13–15.68) 16.06 (15.40–16.73)
Patients rehospitalized after CABG, n (%)a
 Follow-up 9 (26.47) 7 (23.33) 3 (9.38) χ 2 (2) = 3.380; P = 0.185  
LVEF, n (%) at follow-up
  ≥ 50 25 (80.6) 23 (88.5) 24 (100) χ 2 (2) = 5.138; P = 0.077  
 49–30 6 (19.4) 3 (11.5) 0 (0)
  < 30 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Interleukin-6 (pg/mL)a
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 3.71 (2.14–5.27) 2.10 (1.34–2.86) 3.58 (1.91–5.25) F = (6, 216.924) =2.523; P = 0.022 Follow-up: AC
 Post psychological intervention 3.06 (2.03–4.10) 1.83 (1.44–2.22) 3.44 (2.07–4.82)
 After surgery 24.75 (18.61–30.89) 19.56 (13.63–25.49) 19.90 (15.63–24.18)
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 4.83 (2.99–6.68) 3.66 (2.16–5.16) 2.39 (1.38–3.41)
Interleukin-8 (pg/mL)
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 5.48 (4.05–6.90) 5.56 (4.33–6.79) 5.78 (4.18–7.38) F = (6, 206.632) = 4.186; P = 0.001 Post-surgery: AB, AC
 Post psychological intervention 4.76 (3.86–5.66) 5.13 (3.89–6.38) 5.52 (3.73–7.30)
 After surgery 13.71 (11.44–15.97) 10.31 (8.14–12.48) 11.02 (8.64–13.40)
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 5.08 (3.63–6.52) 4.83 (4.22–5.45) 6.07 (4.76–7.37)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (pg/mL)a
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 2.01 (1.60–2.42) 1.48 (1.19–1.76) 1.61 (1.39–1.83) F(6, 174.813) = 1.404; P = 0.216  
 Post psychological intervention 2.20 (1.78–2.62) 1.54 (1.32–1.76) 1.72 (1.43–2.01)
 After surgery 3.63 (2.72–4.54) 2.17 (1.81–2.52) 3.12 (2.51–3.72)
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 2.66 (2.00–3.32) 1.72 (1.48–1.96) 2.09 (1.70–2.49)
C-reactive protein (μg/mL)a
 Baseline (pre-intervention) 2.49 (1.84–3.15) 2.23 (1.32–3.15) 2.96 (2.00–3.92) F(6, 209.520) = 1.410; P = 0.212  
 Post psychological intervention 2.22 (1.62–2.81) 2.19 (1.52–2.86) 3.42 (2.07–4.76)
 After surgery 123.93 (94.24–153.62) 101.71 (77.65–125.76) 96.14 (76.91–115.38)
 Follow-up (after 6 months) 4.23 (2.05–6.42) 4.17 (1.96–6.38) 2.33 (1.54–3.12)
  1. For significant group × time interactions follow-up tests were calculated. ‘Significant pre–post comparisons’ (last column) means that the baseline value was significantly different from the post value for the groups stated in this column (e.g., ‘B, C’ would indicate that for SUPPORT and EXPECT the baseline values were significantly different from the post values within both groups, but for SMC baseline and post values did not differ significantly). For variables only reported at follow-up (e.g., working ability) and for biological variables (four assessment points), the letters indicate significant group differences at the indicated time point. (e.g. ‘Follow-up: AC’ would indicate that groups SMC and EXPECT have significantly different scores at follow-up)
  2. aBecause this variable was only assessed at follow-up, the column “test statistics” includes group comparison (three groups), while the column “pre–post comparison” includes pairwise comparisons
  3. PDI Pain Disability Index, SF-12 Short-Form Health Survey, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire, CAQ Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, HADS Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale, IPQ-E Expected Illness Perception Questionnaire, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction