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Table 4 Standardized betas of multiple linear regression analyses and logistic linear regression analyses evaluating the association of independent variables with HRQoL and psychological distress across all cancers (n = 5249)

From: Health-related quality of life and psychological distress among cancer survivors in Southeast Asia: results from a longitudinal study in eight low- and middle-income countries

Full model EQ-5D index Physical function Emotional function Global health Pain Fatigue Anxiety Depression
Age −0.21 (−0.28 to −0.15) −0.25 (−0.31 to −0.18) −0.17 (−0.25 to −0.09) −0.12 (−0.19 to −0.05) 0.20 (0.12 to 0.28) 0.27 (0.19 to 0.35) 1.01 (1.00 to 1.02) 1.01 (1.01 to 1.02)
Sex −1.13 (−2.90 to 0.63) −0.91 (−2.64 to 0.82) −3.15 (−5.18 to −1.13) 0.73 (−1.01 to 2.47) 0.44 (−1.50 to 2.38) 1.16 (−0.79 to 3.11) 1.43 (1.24 to 1.62) 1.20 (1.02 to 1.37)
Marital status 0.65 (−1.17 to 2.48) 1.94 (0.16 to 3.73) 2.22 (0.13 to 4.31) 1.36 (−0.44 to 3.15) −1.42 (−3.42 to 0.59) −2.04 (−4.05 to −0.03) 1.18 (0.98 to 1.37) 0.93 (0.75 to 1.12)
Level of education
 Primary Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Secondary −2.70 (−4.55 to −0.86) −2.17 (−3.98 to −0.37) −5.16 (−7.27 to −3.04) −5.63 (−7.45 to −3.81) 3.17 (1.14 to 5.20) 4.39 (2.36 to 6.43) 2.24 (2.04 to 2.44) 1.79 (1.60 to 1.97)
 Tertiary −4.07 (−6.30 to −1.84) −2.82 (−5.00 to −0.63) −6.04 (−8.60 to −3.48) −3.68 (−5.88 to −1.48) 3.48 (1.02 to 5.94) 5.44 (2.97 to 7.90) 1.81 (1.56 to 2.05) 1.34 (1.12 to 1.57)
Household income
 Low Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Medium −0.83 (−2.90 to 1.24) −0.20 (−2.23 to 1.83) 0.87 (−1.50 to 3.24) −0.39 (−2.43 to 1.65) 0.22 (−2.06 to 2.50) −0.27 (−2.56 to 2.01) 0.90 (0.68 to 1.11) 1.18 (0.98 to 1.39)
 High 3.68 (1.78 to 5.58) 2.51 (0.64 to 4.37) 2.75 (0.57 to 4.94) −0.09 (−1.97 to 1.79) −2.49 (−4.59 to −0.39) −0.39 (−2.49 to 1.71) 0.48 (0.28 to 0.69) 0.74 (0.55 to 0.93)
 Health insurance 1.16 (−0.47 to 2.79) −2.21 (−3.80 to −0.62) 0.09 (−1.78 to 1.96) 2.46 (0.85 to 4.06) 3.88 (2.09 to 5.67) 3.74 (1.94 to 5.54) 1.13 (0.95 to 1.30) 1.21 (1.05 to 1.38)
 Economic hardship −0.63 (−2.23 to 0.98) −3.28 (−4.86 to −1.71) −2.35 (−4.19 to −0.50) 2.44 (0.86 to 4.03) 3.41 (1.64 to 5.18) 3.85 (2.07 to 5.62) 0.81 (0.64 to 0.99) 0.94 (0.78 to 1.10)
 Paid work 2.04 (0.40 to 3.68) 3.11 (1.50 to 4.72) 1.72 (−0.16 to 3.60) 2.76 (1.14 to 4.37) −3.17 (−4.98 to −1.37) −3.25 (−5.06 to −1.44) 0.66 (0.48 to 0.83) 0.68 (0.51 to 0.84)
Cancer stage at diagnosis
 Stage I Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref   
 Stage II −1.43 (−4.06 to 1.20) −2.09 (−4.66 to 0.48) −1.37 (−4.38 to 1.65) −2.14 (−4.73 to 0.45) 2.96 (0.07 to 5.86) 2.79 (−0.11 to 5.69) 1.30 (1.00 to 1.60) 1.12 (0.86 to 1.39)
 Stage III −3.42 (−6.18 to −0.66) −4.45 (−7.15 to −1.75) −4.77 (−7.94 to −1.61) −4.09 (−6.81 to −1.37) 6.32 (3.29 to 9.36) 5.97 (2.93 to 9.02) 1.30 (0.99 to 1.61) 1.21 (0.93 to 1.49)
 Stage IV −13.34 (−16.40 to −10.27) −14.73 (−17.73 to −11.73) −18.61 (−22.13 to −15.10) −15.14 (−18.16 to −12.11) 19.29 (15.91 to 22.67) 20.01 (16.63 to 23.40) 2.73 (2.40 to 3.07) 2.29 (1.98 to 2.60)
 Hematological −8.53 (−12.07 to −5.00) −7.58 (−11.04 to −4.12) −2.27 (−6.33 to 1.78) −25.76 (−29.25 to −22.27) 7.89 (3.99 to 11.78) 5.68 (1.78 to 9.59) 5.05 (4.67 to 5.44) 3.06 (2.70 to 3.42)
Treatment
 Surgery 7.10 (5.34 to 8.85) 4.48 (2.77 to 6.20) 4.22 (2.21 to 6.23) 2.27 (0.54 to 4.00) −4.81 (−6.74 to −2.88) −3.29 (−5.22 to −1.35) 0.39 (0.21 to 0.57) 0.40 (0.23 to 0.58)
 Radiotherapy −0.44 (−2.01 to 1.14) −0.27 (−1.81 to 1.27) 0.13 (−1.68 to 1.94) 0.10 (−1.45 to 1.66) 1.35 (−0.39 to 3.08) 0.53 (−1.21 to 2.27) 1.11 (0.94 to 1.28) 1.05 (0.89 to 1.20)
 Chemotherapy −3.47 (−5.29 to −1.65) −0.58 (−2.36 to 1.20) −1.56 (−3.65 to 0.52) −1.20 (−3.00 to 0.59) −0.45 (−2.45 to 1.56) 0.41 (−1.60 to 2.42) 0.93 (0.74 to 1.12) 1.02 (0.84 to 1.20)
No. of pre-existing chronic conditions −2.32 (−3.44 to −1.19) −2.51 (−3.61 to −1.41) −2.92 (−4.21 to −1.63) −0.22 (−1.33 to 0.89) 2.30 (1.06 to 3.54) 3.41 (2.17 to 4.65) 1.17 (1.06 to 1.29) 1.13 (1.02 to 1.24)
  1. Age and number of pre-existing chronic conditions were entered as a continuous variable in the regression models. Other variables were sex: females vs. males; marital status: married vs. unmarried; level of education: primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary; household income: low vs. medium vs. high; health insurance: no vs. yes; economic hardship: yes vs. no; paid work: no vs. yes; cancer stage at diagnosis; stage I vs. stage II vs. stage III vs. stage IV; treatment: surgery vs. no surgery, radiotherapy vs. no radiotherapy; chemotherapy vs. no chemotherapy