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Table 3 Sensitivity analysis. Factors associated with place of deatha (hospital versus non-hospital) in patients who died from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD), England 2001–2014, using year of death as a continuous variable

From: Which patients with advanced respiratory disease die in hospital? A 14-year population-based study of trends and associated factors

Variable (Ref) Value Underlying Cause of Death
COPD IPD
Unadjusted PR (95% CI) Adjusted PR Unadjusted PR Adjusted PR
Age (≤54) 55–64 1.07 (1.05–1.10) 1.07 (1.05–1.09) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.95 (0.92–0.98)
65–74 1.13 (1.11–1.16) 1.12 (1.10–1.14) 0.89 (0.87–0.92) 0.90 (0.88–0.93)
75–84 1.13 (1.11–1.16) 1.11 (1.09–1.13) 0.85 (0.83–0.87) 0.85 (0.83–0.88)
85+ 1.04 (1.02–1.06) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.82 (0.79–0.84) 0.82 (0.79–0.84)
Sex (Male) Female 1.02 (1.01–1.02) 1.04 (1.03–1.05) 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.97 (0.95–0.98)
Marital status (Married) Divorced 0.93 (0.92–0.93) 0.92 (0.92–0.93) 1.02 (0.99–1.04) 0.99 (0.96–1.01)
Single 0.89 (0.88–0.90) 0.89 (0.88–0.90) 1.02 (1.00–1.05) 0.98 (0.96–1.01)
Widowed 0.95 (0.94–0.95) 0.95 (0.94–0.95) 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 1.01 (0.99–1.02)
NS/unknown 0.84 (0.82–0.87) 0.83 (0.81–0.86) 0.96 (0.88–1.03) 0.87 (0.80–0.94)
Year of death 0.995 (0.995–0.996) 0.992 (0.992–0.993) 0.993 (0.991–0.994) 0.991 (0.989–0.992)
No. contributing Causes of Death (co-morbidities) (0) 1 1.04 (1.03–1.05) 1.06 (1.05–1.07) 1.26 (1.23–1.28) 1.26 (1.23–1.29)
2 1.08 (1.07–1.09) 1.10 (1.09–1.11) 1.32 (1.30–1.35) 1.33 (1.31–1.36)
3 1.20 (1.19–1.21) 1.23 (1.22–1.24) 1.41 (1.38–1.44) 1.42 (1.39–1.46)
4+ 1.35 (1.34–1.36) 1.39 (1.38–1.40) 1.52 (1.49–1.56) 1.55 (1.52–1.59)
Indices of Multiple Deprivation 5 (Least deprived) 1 (Most deprived) 1.06 (1.05–1.07) 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.15 (1.13–1.17) 1.08 (1.05–1.10)
2 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.04 (1.03–1.05) 1.10 (1.08–1.12) 1.05 (1.03–1.08)
3 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.05 (1.03–1.08) 1.03 (1.01–1.05)
4 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Rural/urban (Urban) Rural 0.93 (0.92–0.94) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.90 (0.89–0.92) 0.94 (0.93–0.96)
Region (London) Cheshire & Merseyside 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 0.92 (0.90–0.95)
East Midlands 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.91 (0.88–0.93) 0.94 (0.91–0.96)
East of England 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.97 (0.96–0.97) 0.90 (0.87–0.92) 0.93 (0.91–0.96)
Greater Manchester, Lancashire and south Cumbria 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.97 (0.97–0.98) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.98 (0.96–1.01)
North East, north Cumbria, and the Hambleton & Richmondshire districts of North Yorkshire 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.94 (0.93–0.95) 0.95 (0.92–0.97) 0.96 (0.94–0.99)
South East Coast 0.92 (0.91–0.93) 0.94 (0.93–0.95) 0.85 (0.82–0.87) 0.89 (0.86–0.91)
South West 0.89 (0.88–0.90) 0.91 (0.90–0.92) 0.84 (0.82–0.87) 0.89 (0.86–0.91)
Thames Valley 0.94 (0.92–0.95) 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.87 (0.84–0.91) 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
Wessex 0.93 (0.92–0.95) 0.94 (0.93–0.95) 0.90 (0.88–0.93) 0.95 (0.92–0.98)
West Midlands 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.94 (0.92–0.97) 0.95 (0.93–0.98)
Yorkshire & The Humber 0.93 (0.92–0.94) 0.92 (0.91–0.93) 0.91 (0.89–0.94) 0.93 (0.91–0.95)
  1. aThe association is measured by proportion ratios(PRs) and 95% confidence intervals. PR > 1 indicates a higher probability of hospital death, < 1 lower chance of hospital death, PR = 1 indicates no association. The adjusted PRs were derived from modified Poisson regression model, adjusting for the listed variables