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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of Protected Mealtimes study participants

From: The efficacy of Protected Mealtimes in hospitalised patients: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

Variable Unique participants All participant observations
Control period n = 82 Intervention period n = 105 Control period n = 210 Intervention period n = 206
Age (mean ± SD) (range) 80.5 ± 10.7
(40–99)
78.6 ± 12.9
(23–100)
80.7 ± 10.2
(40–99)
77.9 ± 13.5
(23–100)
Women (n; %) 49; 59.8 69; 65.7 148; 70.5 135; 65.5
Men (n; %) 33; 40.2 36; 34.3 62; 29.5 71; 34.5
Length of stay (days) (mean ± SD) (range) 54.0 ± 39.7
(9–171)
49.6 ± 37.8
(8–171)
60.7 ± 41.5
(9–171)
52.9 ± 37.3
(9–171)
Primary diagnosis at discharge (n):
Medical disordersa
26 33 65 53
Orthopaedic, musculoskeletal upper limb and lower limb fractures, excluding hip) 14 24 33 51
Hip fracture 9 8 32 18
Stroke 8 13 13 37
Other neurological disease (includes Parkinson’s disease and dementia) 6 10 16 20
Cardiac 5 4 15 6
Respiratory 12 11 32 18
Other surgery 2 1 4 3
Nutritional status: SGA A (well nourished) (n (%)) n = 81
41 (50.6)
n = 101
48 (47.5)
n = 208
111 (53.4)
n = 200
96 (48.0)
SGA B (mildly or moderately malnourished) (n (%)) 37 (45.7) 48 (47.5) 92 (44.2) 93 (46.5)
SGA C (severely malnourished) (n (%)) 3 (3.7) 5 (5.0) 5 (2.4) 11 (5.5)
Body mass index (kg/m2): n (%)
 <18.5 n = 81
10 (12.3)
n = 101
17 (16.8)
n = 210
22 (10.5)
n = 202
28 (13.9)
 ≥18.5 71 (87.7) 84 (83.2) 188 (89.5) 174 (86.1)
Admission FIM n = 82 n = 103 n = 207 n = 204
Total score (range 18–126) (mean ± SD) 66.0 ± 21.4 66.1 ± 21.5 65.0 ± 19.9 63.1 ± 23.3
Eating component (range 1–7) (mean ± SD) 5.1 ± 1.5 5.2 ± 1.6 5.1 ± 1.4 5.0 ± 1.6
Discharge FIM n = 76 n = 100 n = 202 n = 203
Total score (range 18–126) (mean ± SD) 82.3 ± 25.6 82.7 ± 27.2 83.5 ± 23.3 81.8 ± 28.4
Eating component (range 1–7) (mean ± SD) 5.9 ± 1.4 5.8 ± 1.6 6.0 ± 1.3 5.7 ± 1.6
Hand grip strength (kg) (mean ± SD) n = 75
15.3 ± 9.0
n = 95
14.4 ± 8.1
n = 187
14.3 ± 7.6
n = 186
15.0 ± 9.1
Death during admission (n; %) 4; 4.8 2; 1.9 7; 3.4 5; 2.4
  1. SD standard deviation, SGA Subjective Global Assessment [26], FIM Functional Independence Measure [28] of 18 items
  2. aIncludes cancer, diabetes, complications associated with medical or surgical interventions, infections and general malaise