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Table 1 Characteristics of cases and controls for severe and moderate asthma exacerbations

From: Respiratory effect of beta-blockers in people with asthma and cardiovascular disease: population-based nested case control study

  Severe asthma exacerbations Moderate asthma exacerbation
Cases Controls Cases Controls
Number of people 608 6048 4234 41,881
Female sex, no. (%) 428 (70.4) 4261 (70.5) 2815 (66.5) 27,898 (66.6)
Age (years), mean ± SD 62.4 ± 13.4 62.5 ± 13.3 62.8 ± 11.8 62.9 ± 11.7
Years of follow-up, mean ± SD 2.9 ± 2.9 2.9 ± 2.9 2.0 ± 2.5 2.0 ± 2.5
Asthma medication use,a no. (%)
 SABA 482 (79.3) 3631 (60.0) 2809 (66.3) 22,916 (54.7)
 ICS 492 (80.1) 4336 (71.7) 3060 (72.3) 27,236 (65.0)
 LABA 339 (55.8) 1905 (31.5) 1407 (33.2) 9975 (23.8)
 Leukotriene antagonists 67 (11.0) 193 (3.2) 108 (2.6) 731 (1.8)
 Methylxanthines 52 (8.6) 107 (1.7) 80 (1.9) 564 (1.4)
 Oral corticosteroids 270 (44.4) 417 (6.9) n/a n/a
Cardiac medication use,b no. (%)
 Alpha blockers 68 (11.2) 590 (9.8) 395 (9.3) 3774 (9.0)
 Beta-blockers 47 (7.7) 533 (8.8) 425 (10.0) 4628 (11.1)
 Calcium channel blockers 293 (48.2) 2755 (45.6) 1775 (41.9) 18,708 (44.7)
 Diuretics 333 (54.8) 3210 (53.1) 2185 (51.6) 21,240 (50.7)
 Nitrates 97 (16.0) 653 (10.8) 495 (11.7) 4760 (11.4)
 Renin angiotensin system inhibitors 404 (66.5) 3973 (65.7) 2679 (63.3) 26344 (62.3)
Charlson comorbidity index, ± SD 2.0 ± 1.5 1.9 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.5
Body mass index, ± SD 31.0 ± 7.0 30.1 ± 6.3 30.2 ± 6.3 29.7 ± 6.0
Smoking status, no. (%)
 Current smoker 63 (10.4) 566 (9.4) 444 (10.5) 4132 (9.9)
 Non-smoker 516 (84.9) 5314 (87.9) 3664 (86.5) 36,256 (86.5)
 Missing 29 (4.8) 168 (2.8) 126 (3.0) 1493 (3.6)
Respiratory tract infection,a no. (%) 110 (18.1) 398 (6.6) 597 (14.1) 2001 (4.8)
Ever hospitalised for asthma, no. (%) 84 (13.8) 120 (2.0) 115 (2.7) 602 (1.5)
Primary care asthma review,b no. (%) 283 (46.6) 2917 (48.2) 2104 (49.7) 18,905 (45.1)
  1. aIn the 90 days prior to the index date
  2. bIn the year prior to the index date
  3. No. number, SD standard deviation, SABA short-acting beta2-agonists, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, LABA long-acting beta2-agonists, n/a not applicable