Skip to main content

Table 2 Incidence rate ratios for the association between beta-blocker exposure and asthma exacerbations by dose

From: Respiratory effect of beta-blockers in people with asthma and cardiovascular disease: population-based nested case control study

  Cardioselective beta-blockers Non-selective beta-blockers
Exposed Exposed Crude Adjusted Exposed Exposed Crude Adjusted
casesa controlsa IRR IRR 95% CI P value casesa controlsa IRR IRR 95% CI P value
Any exposure
 Severe exacerbation 27 466 0.72 0.87 0.57–1.35 0.540 9 51 1.29 1.66 0.53–5.35 0.398
 Moderate exacerbation 357 3956 0.89 0.97 0.85–1.11 0.658 35 309 1.33 1.41 0.95–2.08 0.088
Low dose
 Severe exacerbation 23 388 0.70 0.85 0.53–1.36 0.501 8 44 1.04 1.19 0.31–4.53 0.799
 Moderate exacerbation 283 3256 0.87 0.96 0.83–1.10 0.544 29 271 1.19 1.24 0.80–1.91 0.336
High dose
 Severe exacerbation 4 82 0.85 0.96 0.33–2.84 0.943 1 7 5.00 12.11 1.02–144.11 0.048
 Moderate exacerbation 79 733 0.99 1.08 0.82–1.42 0.600 6 39 2.50 2.67 1.08–6.62 0.034
  1. aExposed cases/controls, exposed within the 60 day risk window
  2. IRR Incidence Rate Ratios
  3. Adjusted for asthma medication use in the 90 days prior to the index date; respiratory tract infection in the 90 days prior to the index date; prior hospitalization for asthma; type of CVD medicine use in the year prior to the index date; exact age; smoking status; body mass index; social deprivation; Charlson comorbidity index; and primary care asthma review in the year prior to the index date