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Table 3 Incidence rate ratios for the association between beta-blocker exposure and asthma exacerbations by dose and duration of exposure

From: Respiratory effect of beta-blockers in people with asthma and cardiovascular disease: population-based nested case control study

  Cardioselective beta-blockers Non-selective beta-blockers
Exposed Exposed Crude Adjusted Exposed Exposed Crude Adjusted
casesa controlsa IRR IRR 95% CI P value casesa controlsa IRR IRR 95% CI P value
Low to moderate dose
 Acute
  Severe exacerbationb 4 28 1.41 1.47 0.44–4.97 0.532 0 2
  Moderate exacerbation 19 255 1.02 1.04 0.64–1.70 0.865 6 12 5.19 5.16 1.83–14.54 0.002
 Chronic
  Severe exacerbationb 19 360 0.63 0.81 0.48–1.35 0.409 8 42 1.11 1.22 0.32–4.67 0.773
  Moderate exacerbation 264 3031 0.86 0.95 0.82–1.10 0.517 23 259 0.86 0.99 0.60–1.62 0.954
High dose
  Acute
  Severe exacerbationb 1 6 1.67 2.76 0.32–23.78 0.347 0 0
  Moderate exacerbation 2 51 0.49 0.55 0.13–2.31 0.416 0 0
 Chronic
  Severe exacerbationb 7 63 0.73 0.82 0.24–2.82 0.754 1 7 5.00 12.04 1.01–143.48 0.049
  Moderate exacerbation 77 682 1.03 1.11 0.84–1.47 0.339 6 39 2.50 2.68 1.08–6.64 0.033
  1. aExposed cases/controls, exposed within the 60 day risk window
  2. bSevere asthma exacerbations associated with acute non-selective beta-blocker exposure inestimable due to lack of exposure IRR Incidence Rate Ratios
  3. Adjusted for asthma medication use in the 90 days prior to the index date; respiratory tract infection in the 90 days prior to the index date; prior hospitalization for asthma; type of CVD medicine use in the year prior to the index date; exact age; smoking status; body mass index; social deprivation; Charlson comorbidity index; and primary care asthma review in the year prior to the index date. Empty cells (–), inestimable due to lack of corresponding beta-blocker exposure among cases and controls