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Table 4 Risk of moderate and severe asthma exacerbations using a negative control with nitrate exposure

From: Respiratory effect of beta-blockers in people with asthma and cardiovascular disease: population-based nested case control study

  Nitrates
Exposed Exposed Crude Adjusted
casesa controlsa IRR IRR 95% CI P value
Any exposure
 Severe exacerbation 65 408 1.68 1.19 0.86–1.65 0.287
 Moderate exacerbation 329 2896 1.14 1.10 0.97–1.25 0.131
Acute exposure
 Severe exacerbation 5 45 1.16 1.36 0.50–3.69 0.550
 Moderate exacerbation 40 343 1.16 1.14 0.81–1.59 0.600
Chronic exposure
 Severe exacerbation 60 363 1.75 1.18 0.84–1.65 0.463
 Moderate exacerbation 289 2553 1.14 1.10 0.96–1.26 0.172
  1. aExposed cases/controls, exposed within the 60 day risk window
  2. IRR Incidence Rate Ratios
  3. Adjusted for asthma medication use in the 90 days prior to the index date; respiratory tract infection in the 90 days prior to the index date; hospitalization for asthma in the year prior to the index date; type of CVD medicine use in the year prior to the index date; exact age; smoking status; body mass index; social deprivation; Charlson comorbidity index; and primary care asthma review in the year prior to the index date