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Table 2 Estimates of causal relationship between BMI and AMY1 or AMY2 plasma enzymatic activity, using two different methods

From: Relationship between salivary/pancreatic amylase and body mass index: a systems biology approach

Relationships to assess Inverse variance weighting method Two-stage least squares method
Effect size ± SE P value Instrument Effect size ± SE P value Instrument
BMI → AMY1 (n = 3673) −4.15 ± 1.66 0.012 GRS based on 83 SNPs −0.97 ± 0.49 0.047 GRS based on 83 SNPs
BMI → AMY2 (n = 3905) −2.53 ± 0.94 7.1 × 10−3 GRS based on 83 SNPs −0.75 ± 0.28 6.1 × 10−3 GRS based on 83 SNPs
AMY1 → BMI (n = 3673) NAa NAa NAa 0.013 ± 0.046 0.78 rs10492100 (PRH1-PRR4)
AMY2 → BMI (n = 3905) NAa NAa NAa 0.041 ± 0.097 0.67 rs507666 (ABO)
  1. aThe inverse variance weighting scheme could not be properly applied to estimate the causal effect of AMY1 or AMY2 plasma enzymatic activity on BMI as to our knowledge, no data on association between SNPs and those activities have been published before
  2. AMY1 salivary amylase, AMY2 pancreatic amylase, BMI body mass index, GRS genetic risk score, NA not applicable, SE standard error, SNP single nucleotide polymorphism