Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Financial barriers and adverse clinical outcomes among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases: a cohort study

  Overall (n = 120,752) Any financial barrier (n = 12,303)* No financial barrier (n = 108,449) p (chi square)
n % n % n %  
Age 45–64 years 50,228 41.6 7470 60.7 42,758 39.4 <0.001
65–74 years 33,951 28.1 2766 22.5 31,185 28.8
75+ 36,573 30.3 2067 16.8 34,506 31.8
Demographic characteristics Sex: male 53,098 44.0 4882 39.7 48,216 44.5 <0.001
Marital Status: married 67,725 56.1 5010 40.8 62,715 57.9 <0.001
Residence: rural 34,386 28.5 3320 27.0 31,066 28.7 <0.001
Ethnicity White 111,639 92.8 10,690 87.4 100,949 93.5 <0.001
Indigenous 3030 2.5 717 5.9 2313 2.1
Other 5585 4.6 831 6.8 4754 4.4
Not stated 498   65   433  
Household income ($ CAD) 0–29,999 44,638 43.9 8108 72.2 36,530 40.4 <0.001
30,000–49,999 25,802 25.4 1942 17.3 23,860 26.4
50,000–69,999 18,630 18.3 818 7.3 17,812 19.7
70,000 + 12,628 12.4 367 3.2 12,261 13.5
Not stated 19,054   1068   17,986  
Education Less than secondary 42,199 35.3 5248 43.0 36,951 34.4 <0.001
Secondary graduate 26,026 21.8 2545 20.9 23,481 21.9
Post-secondary graduate 51,269 42.9 4398 36.1 46,871 43.7
Not stated 1258   112   1146  
Smoking status Current smoker 49,309 40.8 4157 33.8 45,152 41.6 <0.001
Former smoker 52,395 43.4 4423 36.0 47,972 44.2
Never smoker 19,048 15.8 3723 30.2 15,325 14.1
Type of condition Hypertension 99,611 82.5 9962 81.0 89,649 82.7 <0.001
Diabetes 30,055 24.9 3821 31.1 26,234 24.2 <0.001
Heart disease 32,319 26.8 3665 29.8 28,654 26.4 <0.001
Stroke 6976 5.8 1054 8.6 5922 5.5 <0.001
Multimorbidity† 39,612 32.8 4852 39.4 34,760 32.1 <0.001
Mental illness‡ 12,215 12.0 2787 28.2 9428 10.3 <0.001
BMI class (corrected for self-report [35]) Obese 39,401 37.7 4904 45.7 34,497 39,401 <0.001
Overweight 40,210 38.4 3468 32.3 36,742 40,210
Normal/underweight 24,991 23.9 2371 22.1 22,620 24,991
Not stated 16,150   1560   14,590 16,150
Self-perceived health Excellent/very good 40,378 33.5 2194 17.9 38,184 35.3 <0.001
Good 42,725 35.4 3664 29.9 39,061 36.1
Fair/poor 37,453 31.1 6416 52.2 31,037 28.7
Not stated 196.0   29.0   167  
  1. *Those who identified having at least one type of financial barrier to care - see Appendix
  2. †Multimorbidity denotes those who have more than one of heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and/or stroke
  3. ‡Mental illness denotes those who self-reported having either anxiety or mood disorders