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Table 2 Rate of outcomes and incidence rate ratios, by financial barrier type

From: Financial barriers and adverse clinical outcomes among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases: a cohort study

  Outcome Adjusted incidence ratea (95% CI) (no. outcomes/year/1000 population) Incidence rate ratio (95% CI)
No financial barrier Financial barrier Crude Fully adjusted Reduced final Final covariates
Home care (only >75 years) N (%) 23,397 (98.8) 280 (1.2)     
DR-Hosp 60.2 (58.3-62.2) 80.6 (59.8-101.5) 1.43 (1.10-1.88) 1.36 (1.05-1.76) 1.34 (1.03-1.74) Sex, MM
Mortality 59.6 (58.1-61.2) 76.1 (60.5-91.7) 1.26 (1.05-1.51) 1.15 (0.93-1.42) 1.28 (1.04-1.57) Sex
Medications N (%) 2782 (92.5) 224 (7.5)     
DR-Hosp 26.0 (22.6-29.3) 40.2 (24.4-56.1) 1.24 (0.82-1.88) 1.39 (0.92-2.12) 1.55 (1.02-2.35) Age, sex
Mortality 14.2 (11.0-17.3) 6.7 (0.1-13.3) 0.40 (0.15-1.07) 0.39 (0.14-1.07) 0.47 (0.18-1.27) Age, sex
Healthcare provider/test N (%) 101,040 (97.7) 2383 (2.3)     
DR-Hosp 35.0 (34.3-35.7) 43.3 (37.8-48.7) 0.98 (0.86-1.11) 1.08 (0.95-1.24) 1.24 (1.09-1.40) Age, sex
Mortality 20.8 (20.3-21.3) 25.3 (21.9-28.7) 0.83 (0.73-0.95) 1.09 (0.93-1.26) 1.22 (1.06-1.39) Age, sex
Healthful food N (%) 97,754 (91.1) 9506 (8.9)     
DR-Hosp 35.5 (34.7-36.2) 59.5 (56.0-63.0) 1.25 (1.17-1.33) 1.31 (1.22-1.41) 1.68 (1.56-1.79) Age, sex, MM
Mortality 6.6 (6.4-6.8) 9.3 (8.6-9.9) 1.08 (1.02-1.14) 1.32 (1.23-1.42) 1.41 (1.31-1.51) Age, sex, MH, SM
Health behaviour modification N (%) 18,142 (98.4) 289 (1.6)     
DR-Hosp 35.4 (33.8-37.0) 37.9 (24.1-51.6) 0.84 (0.58-1.22) 1.11 (0.77-1.60) 1.07 (0.74-1.54) Age, sex
Mortality 18.0 (16.5-19.5) 15.5 (5.9-25.1) 0.56 (0.30-1.02) 0.89 (0.49-1.62) 0.90 (0.49-1.63) Age, sex
Unmet need due to cost N (%) 70,826 (99.0) 750 (1.0)     
DR-Hosp 34.6 (33.8-35.5) 44.1 (35.0-53.1) 1.15 (0.93-1.43) 1.24 (0.97-1.58) 1.27 (1.03-1.56) Age, sex, MM
Mortality 23.2 (22.6-23.7) 21.1 (16.6-25.6) 0.69 (0.56-0.83) 0.83 (0.64-1.06) 0.90 (0.74-1.09) Age, sex
At least 1 financial barrier N (%) 110,123 (91.2) 12,303 (10.2)     
DR-Hosp 31.7 (31.1-32.3) 43.1 (40.9-45.3) 1.19 (1.13-1.27) 1.23 (1.16-1.31) 1.36 (1.29-1.44) Age, sex, MM
Mortality 7.7 (7.5-7.9) 9.6 (9.0-10.1) 1.02 (0.97-1.07) 1.09 (1.03-1.16) 1.24 (1.16-1.32) Age, sex, MH
  1. DR-Hosp disease-related hospitalization
  2. MH mental health comorbidity
  3. MM multimorbidity
  4. SM smoking
  5. aAdjusted using the reduced models to the overall means/proportions of covariates