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Table 4 Risk of recurrent congenital anomaly in the second pregnancy (from any group, from the same group, from a different group) presented as natural frequency, by congenital anomaly group/subtype in the first pregnancy

From: Risk estimates of recurrent congenital anomalies in the UK: a population-based register study

Congenital anomaly group/subtype in the first pregnancy Risk, as natural frequency (95% CI)
Any congenital anomaly From the same group (similar) From a different group (dissimilar)
Isolated anomalies 1 in 28 (24-32) 1 in 58 (48-75) 1 in 54 (44-69)
Nervous system 1 in 25 (18-35) 1 in 53 (32-90) 1 in 47 (29-68 b )
Neural tube defects 1 in 30 (19-49) 1 in 54 (28-103) 1 in 65a (33-65b)
Anencephaly 1 in 26 (13-52) 1 in 69 (23-215) 1 in 41 (17-63b)
Spina bifida 1 in 40 (18-61b) 1 in 60 (23-161)  
Hydrocephalus 1 in 20 (9-47)   1 in 25 (10-62b)
Microcephaly 1 in 10 (5-25) 1 in 17 (6-54)  
Cardiovascular 1 in 29 (23-36) 1 in 51 (38-68) 1 in 67 a (48-92)
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) 1 in 25 (19-35) 1 in 42 (28-63) 1 in 64a (39-71b)
Atrial septal defect (ASD) 1 in 21 (11-41) 1 in 27 (13-61)  
Pulmonary valve stenosis 1 in 49 (19-61b) 1 in 66 (22-205)  
Aortic valve atresia/stenosis 1 in 33 (11-61b) 1 in 50 (13-201)  
Coarctation of the aorta 1 in 30 (12-61b) 1 in 41 (13-127)  
Orofacial clefts 1 in 28 (17-48) 1 in 50 (25-99) 1 in 64 a (30-64 b )
Cleft lip 1 in 26 (10-61b)   1 in 34 (12-62b)
Cleft lip and palate 1 in 26 (12-57) 1 in 31 (13-74)  
Cleft palate 1 in 28 (12-61b)   1 in 47 (16-62b)
Digestive system 1 in 31 (18-54) 1 in 93 (35-246) 1 in 46 (23-64 b )
Diaphragmatic hernia 1 in 16 (7-38)   1 in 26 (9-62b)
Abdominal wall 1 in 61 a (24-61 b )   1 in 62 a (28-62 b )
Gastroschisis 1 in 57 (19-61b)   1 in 62a (22-62b)
Urinary 1 in 22 (16-31) 1 in 47 (29-76) 1 in 42 (26-66 b )
Cystic kidney disease 1 in 18 (9-36) 1 in 29 (12-70) 1 in 48 (16-63b)
Limb 1 in 49 (21-61 b )   1 in 61 a (23-62 b )
Polydactyly 1 in 14 (4-55)   1 in 14 (4-55)
Musculoskeletal 1 in 12 (5-31)   1 in 12 (5-31)
Syndromic anomalies 1 in 19 (15-22) 1 in 35 (28-48) 1 in 40 (31-55)
Chromosomal syndromes 1 in 23 (17-30) 1 in 37 (26-53) 1 in 59 (37-75 b )
Down syndrome 1 in 36 (22-59) 1 in 77 (37-160) 1 in 67a (34-67b)
Edward syndrome 1 in 23 (9-61)   
Turner syndrome 1 in 24 (9-61b)   
Genetic syndromes and microdeletions 1 in 11 (8-15) 1 in 18 (12-29) 1 in 26 (15-44)
DiGeorge syndrome 1 in 12 (5-29)   1 in 15 (6-40)
Stickler syndrome 1 in 2 (1-8) 1 in 2 (1-8)  
Other syndromes, sequences, etc. 1 in 23 (12-43) 1 in 70 (23-216) 1 in 34 (16-63 b )
Other genetic anomalies 1 in 6 (3-13) 1 in 7 (3-17)  
Multiple congenital anomalies 1 in 21 (13-35)   1 in 25 (15-41)
Any congenital anomaly 1 in 24 (22-27) 1 in 49 (42-59) 1 in 49 (42-59)
  1. Congenital anomaly groups (e.g. nervous system) and combined groups (i.e. isolated anomalies, syndromic anomalies and any congenital anomaly) are presented in bold text, while congenital anomaly subtypes within the groups are presented in regular text
  2. aEstimate truncated at baseline risk
  3. bConfidence limit truncated at baseline risk
  4. Only those groups and subtypes with at least three cases of recurrent pregnancies are reported