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Table 4 Inflammatory markers across pregnancy and from cord blood between randomised treatment groups

From: The effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese women on circulating cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers: secondary analyses from the LIMIT randomised trial

Outcome Lifestyle advice group Standard care group Unadjusted estimate (95% CI) Unadjusted P value Adjusted estimate (95% CI)a Adjusted P value
GMCSF (pg/mL)     0.036*   0.016*
 Baseline 1.02 (0.36, 4.41) 1.05 (0.36, 4.15) 1.00 (0.84, 1.19) 0.986 1.01 (0.85, 1.20) 0.916
 28 weeks 0.99 (0.36, 4.20) 0.92 (0.32, 3.98) 1.06 (0.88, 1.26) 0.545 1.07 (0.90, 1.28) 0.444
 36 weeks 0.99 (0.34, 4.06) 0.95 (0.33, 3.79) 1.00 (0.83, 1.19) 0.964 1.01 (0.84, 1.21) 0.913
 Cord blood 0.44 (0.23, 0.82) 0.43 (0.24, 0.87) 0.81 (0.66, 0.98) 0.034 0.80 (0.65, 0.97) 0.026
IFN-γ (pg/mL)     0.638*   0.559*
 Baseline 0.39 (0.13, 1.28) 0.35 (0.14, 1.24) 1.02 (0.86, 1.21) 0.809 1.02 (0.86, 1.20) 0.834
 28 weeks 0.38 (0.12, 1.17) 0.34 (0.13, 1.08) 1.02 (0.86, 1.22) 0.801 1.02 (0.86, 1.21) 0.832
 36 weeks 0.35 (0.11, 1.11) 0.30 (0.11, 1.03) 1.09 (0.91, 1.30) 0.333 1.08 (0.90, 1.29) 0.419
 Cord blood 0.17 (0.07, 1.43) 0.20 (0.07, 1.29) 0.96 (0.79, 1.17) 0.684 0.93 (0.76, 1.13) 0.476
TNF-α (pg/mL)     0.600*   0.643*
 Baseline 0.72 (0.10, 2.69) 0.68 (0.10, 2.53) 1.01 (0.81, 1.25) 0.950 1.00 (0.80, 1.24) 0.967
 28 weeks 0.62 (0.10, 2.69) 0.57 (0.10, 2.14) 1.06 (0.85, 1.33) 0.581 1.05 (0.84, 1.32) 0.650
 36 weeks 0.60 (0.10, 2.28) 0.47 (0.10, 2.08) 1.16 (0.93, 1.46) 0.195 1.15 (0.91, 1.44) 0.247
 Cord blood 0.42 (0.12, 0.87) 0.40 (0.10, 0.82) 1.04 (0.81, 1.32) 0.766 1.04 (0.81, 1.33) 0.770
IL-1β (pg/mL)     0.883*   0.807*
 Baseline 0.20 (0.10, 0.59) 0.19 (0.10, 0.53) 1.04 (0.88, 1.23) 0.621 1.04 (0.87, 1.23) 0.687
 28 weeks 0.19 (0.10, 0.54) 0.17 (0.10, 0.54) 1.07 (0.90, 1.27) 0.456 1.06 (0.89, 1.26) 0.527
 36 weeks 0.18 (0.10, 0.51) 0.14 (0.10, 0.47) 1.11 (0.93, 1.33) 0.234 1.12 (0.93, 1.34) 0.229
 Cord blood 1.07 (0.39, 3.04) 0.99 (0.34, 2.76) 1.04 (0.86, 1.24) 0.696 1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 0.855
IL-2 (pg/mL)     0.055*   0.054*
 Baseline 0.76 (0.16, 2.76) 0.65 (0.15, 2.61) 0.99 (0.81, 1.21) 0.926 1.00 (0.82, 1.23) 0.969
 28 weeks 0.73 (0.12, 2.63) 0.50 (0.12, 2.01) 1.16 (0.94, 1.43) 0.159 1.17 (0.95, 1.45) 0.135
 36 weeks 0.66 (0.13, 2.33) 0.45 (0.12, 1.82) 1.16 (0.94, 1.43) 0.179 1.17 (0.94, 1.45) 0.151
 Cord blood 0.12 (0.12, 0.31) 0.12 (0.12, 0.30) 0.91 (0.71, 1.16) 0.444 0.91 (0.71, 1.16) 0.458
IL-4 (pg/mL)     0.154*   0.159*
 Baseline 1.70 (0.53, 6.14) 1.66 (0.49, 4.89) 1.07 (0.89, 1.27) 0.476 1.06 (0.89, 1.27) 0.530
 28 weeks 1.47 (0.47, 5.51) 1.23 (0.38, 4.38) 1.21 (1.01, 1.46) 0.040 1.20 (0.99, 1.44) 0.058
 36 weeks 1.37 (0.55, 5.22) 1.26 (0.38, 4.18) 1.15 (0.95, 1.38) 0.152 1.13 (0.93, 1.36) 0.217
 Cord blood 1.51 (0.50, 3.53) 1.39 (0.47, 3.70) 0.97 (0.80, 1.19) 0.797 0.96 (0.78, 1.17) 0.665
IL-5 (pg/mL)     0.446*   0.476*
 Baseline 0.42 (0.18, 0.98) 0.39 (0.18, 0.96) 1.02 (0.90, 1.17) 0.726 1.05 (0.92, 1.20) 0.500
 28 weeks 0.40 (0.18, 0.96) 0.41 (0.18, 0.85) 1.04 (0.91, 1.20) 0.544 1.06 (0.92, 1.22) 0.409
 36 weeks 0.39 (0.18, 0.88) 0.31 (0.18, 0.68) 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) 0.088 1.15 (0.99, 1.32) 0.061
 Cord blood 0.61 (0.31, 1.15) 0.55 (0.31, 1.03) 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 0.806 1.03 (0.88, 1.19) 0.736
IL-6 (pg/mL)     0.857*   0.823*
 Baseline 1.18 (0.61, 2.18) 1.14 (0.59, 2.07) 1.02 (0.91, 1.13) 0.773 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 0.738
 28 weeks 1.12 (0.63, 2.06) 1.11 (0.63, 2.03) 1.05 (0.94, 1.18) 0.403 1.05 (0.94, 1.18) 0.396
 36 weeks 1.33 (0.76, 2.38) 1.26 (0.78, 2.15) 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 0.911 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 0.886
 Cord blood 4.46 (1.86, 13.86) 4.32 (1.67, 14.10) 1.00 (0.88, 1.14) 0.943 1.00 (0.87, 1.14) 0.956
IL-8 (pg/mL)     0.183*   0.198*
 Baseline 7.36 (3.96, 12.06) 7.26 (4.21, 12.22) 0.96 (0.86, 1.08) 0.497 0.96 (0.87, 1.07) 0.482
 28 weeks 7.66 (4.42, 13.57) 7.50 (3.76, 12.41) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) 0.738 1.04 (0.94, 1.16) 0.451
 36 weeks 7.95 (4.70, 12.86) 7.29 (4.23, 12.07) 1.12 (0.99, 1.27) 0.061 1.10 (0.99, 1.23) 0.073
 Cord blood 58.93 (28.11, 131.39) 58.25 (29.89, 132.60) 1.00 (0.88, 1.15) 0.953 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 0.872
IL-10 (pg/mL)     0.721*   0.742*
 Baseline 2.45 (1.65, 3.98) 2.42 (1.68, 4.02) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.573 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.683
 28 weeks 2.41 (1.60, 3.98) 2.32 (1.59, 3.75) 1.02 (0.94, 1.10) 0.664 1.02 (0.94, 1.10) 0.670
 36 weeks 2.39 (1.63, 3.94) 2.36 (1.60, 3.74) 0.98 (0.91, 1.07) 0.709 0.99 (0.91, 1.07) 0.725
 Cord blood 4.16 (2.68, 6.50) 4.20 (2.59, 6.83) 0.97 (0.89, 1.06) 0.544 0.97 (0.89, 1.06) 0.501
  1. aAdjustment for centre, parity, BMI category (stratification variables), Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage quintile, smoking status, and maternal age at consent
  2. *P value for test of interaction between treatment group and time
  3. Descriptives are median (interquartile range) and estimates are ratios of geometric means (Intervention/Control) with 95% confidence interval
  4. GMCSF granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, IFN-γ interferon gamma, TNF-α tumour necrosis factor alpha, IL interleukin