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Table 2 Mean (±standard error) estimates derived from mixed model repeated measures (MMRM, unadjusted estimates) comparing differences between the dietary support (DS) and social support (SS) groups in terms of changes from baseline to primary endpoint of 12 weeks

From: A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial)

Characteristic DS SS Between-group differences in change from baseline to 12 weeks  
Baseline 12 weeks Baseline 12 weeks
M (SE) M (SE) M (SE) M (SE) M (SE) 95% CI [LCI, UCI] t a df p
Symptoms
 MADRS (0-60) 26.1 (1.0) 14.8 (1.1) 24.7 (1.0) 20.5 (1.2) 7.1 (1.6) 3.9, 10.4 4.38 60.7 <.001
 HADS – (D) (0-21) 10.0 (0.6) 5.3 (0.7) 9.2 (0.6) 6.8 (0.7) 2.3 (1.1) 0.2, 4.4 2.20 55.1 .032
 HADS – (A) (0-21) 12.1 (0.6) 8.4 (0.6) 11.2 (0.6) 9.5 (0.7) 2.0 (0.9) 0.2, 3.9 2.19 59.0 .033
Mood
 POMS (-32–200) 54.5 (6.0) 30.3 (6.5) 40.9 (5.8) 32.1 (6.7) 15.4 (9.9) -4.6, 35.3 1.56 43.5 .127
Self-efficacy
 GSE (10-40) 24.6 (1.0) 28.1 (1.0) 25.7 (1.0) 26.7 (1.1) -2.4 (1.6) -5.7, 0.9 -1.44 59.0 .156
Wellbeing
 WHO-5 (0-25) 6.9 (0.8) 12.3 (0.9) 6.7 (0.8) 10.3 (1.0) -1.8 (1.7) -5.2, 1.6 -1.04 62.0 .304
Anthropometry
 BMI 30.0 (1.4) 29.9 (1.4) 29.0 (1.4) 29.1 (1.4) 0.15 (0.27) -0.4, 0.7 0.56 47.0 .579
 Physical activity (IPAQ scores) 2307.7 (664.8) 2251.3 (645.9) 2509.4 (636.3) 2892.2 (636.3) 439.3 (1097.6) -1757.2, 2635 0.40 58.9 .690
Diet
 ModiMedDiet (0-120) 36.2 (2.5) 55.1 (2.8) 47.3 (2.6) 45.4 (2.9) -20.7 (4.3) -20.7, -12.1 -4.78 55.62 <.001
Biomarkers
 Glucose (mmol/L) 4.5 (0.5) 4.7 (5.5) 5.4 (0.5) 5.5 (0.6) -0.1 (4.3) -0.9, 0.8 -0.10 48.5 .919
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 (0.2) 4.8 (0.2) 5.5 (0.2) 5.2 (0.2) -0.2 (0.2) -0.5, 0.2 -1.08 47.7 .287
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.3 (0.2) 1.2 (0.2) 1.4 (0.2) 1.5 (0.2) 0.2 (0.2) -0.3, 0.7 0.88 53.4 .386
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) -1.5 (0.1) 1.5 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.3 (0.1) -0.1 (0.1) -0.2, 0.1 -1.11 47.7 .272
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.9 (0.2) 2.8 (0.1) 3.4 (0.2) 3.2 (0.2) -0.1 (0.2) -0.4, 0.3 -0.48 47.1 .636
 Total saturates (% FA) 35.7 (0.5) 36.6 (0.5) 35.6 (0.5) 38.1 (0.6) 1.6 (1.0) -0.5, 3.6 1.54 62.1 .128
 Total monounsaturates (% FA) 23.2 (0.4) 22.2 (0.5) 22.8 (0.4) 23.2 (0.6) 1.4 (0.8) -0.3, 3.1 1.69 55.4 .096
 Total polyunsaturates (% FA) 41.1 (0.7) 41.3 (0.8) 41.6 (0.7) 38.6 (0.9) -3.1 (1.3) -5.7, 0.5 -2.41 54.9 .019
 n6 (% PUFA) 14.6 (0.4) 14.5 (0.4) 14.3 (0.4) 12.8 (0.5) -1.4 (0.8) -3.0, 0.3 -1.69 62.1 .096
 n3 (% PUFA) 6.9 (0.3) 6.8 (0.3) 6.5 (0.3) 7.2 (0.4) 0.9 (0.6) -0.3, 2.1 1.57 57.8 .123
  1. MADRS Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, POMS Profile of Mood States, GSE Generalized Self-Efficacy scale, WHO-5 WHO (Five) wellbeing index, BMI body mass index, FA fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids
  2. aDerived from planned comparison within mixed model repeated measures (MMRM) using all available data (baseline data n = 67, 12 week data n = 56) and based on unadjusted estimates