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Table 2 Maternal characteristics of the GUSTO cohort studied in the analysis

From: Developmental pathways to adiposity begin before birth and are influenced by genotype, prenatal environment and epigenome

  Time point N (%) Mean (SD)
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) Self-reported at first clinic visit 906 22.7 (4.4)
Gestational weight gain (kg) 26–28 weeks gestation 902 8.7 (4.7)
Maternal height (m) 971 158.3 (5.6)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 920 4.3 (0.5)
2-h post-glucose (mmol/L) 920 6.5 (1.5)
n-6 PUFA (%) 863 34.2 (3.3)
n-3 PUFA (%) 863 6.4 (1.8)
MUFA (%) 863 13.6 (2.3)
SFA (%) 863 45.8 (3.3)
EPDS score 955 7.4 (4.4)
STAI state score 957 33.8 (10.0)
STAI trait score 957 35.7 (9.6)
Caloric intake 3-day food diary (kcal) 550 1871.2 (476.3)
Caloric intake 24-h recall (kcal) 960 1843.6 (550.6)
Parity >0 Delivery 536 (54%)  
0 451 (46%)
Maternal age (years) ≥35 Self-reported at first clinic visit 251 (25%)  
<35 736 (75%)
Smoking before pregnancy Yes Interviewer-administered questionnaire at 26–28 weeks gestation 121 (12%)  
No 855 (88%)
Smoking during pregnancy Yes 24 (2%)  
No 951 (98%)
Plasma vitamin D >50 nmol/L 26–28 weeks gestation 718 (87%)  
≤50 nmol/L 108 (13%)
Plasma folate ≥6 ng/mL 774 (90%)  
<6 ng/mL 90 (10%)
Plasma vitamin B12 ≥300 pg/mL 373 (43%)  
<300 pg/mL 492 (57%)
Plasma vitamin B6 <20 nmol/L 137 (16%)  
≥20 nmol/L 727 (84%)
Plasma iron ≥560 μg/L 403 (92%)  
<560 μg/L 36 (8%)
Plasma zinc ≥700 μg/L 417 (95%)  
<700 μg/L 22 (5%)
Plasma magnesium ≥18.25 mg/L 304 (69%)  
<18.25 mg/L 135 (31%)
IVF birth Yes Self-reported at first clinic visit 69 (7%)  
No 918 (93%)
Maternal education (years) ≥12 596 (61%)  
<12 379 (39%)
Working during pregnancy Yes Interviewer-administered questionnaire at 26–28 weeks gestation 681 (70%)  
No 297 (30%)
Alcohol use before pregnancy Yes 338 (35%)  
No 636 (65%)
Alcohol use during pregnancy Yes 19 (2%)  
No 938 (98%)
  1. BMI body mass index, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, IVF in vitro fertilisation, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, SFA saturated fatty acids, STAI State–Trait Anxiety Inventory