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Table 2 Effects of oxytocin versus placebo on cardiac parameters and trauma-related psychopathological symptoms at baseline and in response to trauma-script challenge

From: Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial

  Placebo Oxytocin Repeated effects comparison (LMM) Effect size
baseline Trauma script baseline Trauma script    
mean (SD) mean (SD) mean (SD) mean (SD) F (DF) p-value Cohen’s d (95% CI)
HR (bpm) 75.9 (9.6) 82.1 (11.4) 77.9 (8.9) 87.2 (15.0) 3.0 (34) 0.059t 0.291 (−0.00–0.50)
HR max (bpm)   88.1 (12.6)   93.8 (15.2) 12.8 (34) 0.020* 0.605 (0.34–0.87)
HRV (ms) 3.15 (.65) 2.91 (.79) 3.05 (.79) 2.79 (.85) 0.26 (34) 0.67 0.088 (−0.15–0.33)
PEP (ms) 76.0 (12.2) 74.2 (12.9) 74.4 (13.6) 70.0 (17.7) 8.8 (33) 0.007** 0.515 (0.26–0.77)
RESP (bpm) 15.6 (3.0) 17.1 (3.8) 15.1 (3.1) 16.7 (4.2) 0.01 (34) 0.95 0.001 (−0.39–0.41)
RSDI-total   2.87 (1.1)   2.44 (.90) 7.1 (34) 0.012* 0.459 (0.13–0.79)
RSDI-Re-experiencing   3.74 (1.3)   3.30 (1.2) 2.2 (34) 0.15 0.342 (−0.11–0.70)
RSDI-Avoidance   2.52 (1.8)   1.92 (1.4) 3.0 (34) 0.093t 0.289 (−0.14–0.72)
RSDI-Dissociation   2.26 (1.8)   1.96 (1.4) 1.2 (34) 0.26 0.195 (−0.13–0.52)
  1. Abbreviations: bpm beats per minute, CI confidence interval. HR heart rate, HR max heart rate maximum during trauma-script challenge, HRV heart rate variability (logarithmically transformed), LMM linear mixed model analysis, PEP pre-ejection period, RESP respiration rate (breaths per minute), RSDI Response to Script-Driven Imagery Scale (for citation, see main text), SD standard deviation. Symbols: t ≤ 0.1; *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01. All effects of physiological data have been controlled for influences of baseline values