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Table 1 Incidence of post-sustained virologic response (SVR) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and recurrence

From: Hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the era of new generation antivirals

Author (year), Reference Major race Country Type of anti-HCV therapy n Follow-up, median, years Male sex, n (%) Age, median, years Advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, n (%) Treatment for previous HCC Reported HCC incidence in SVR, % (interval in years) Annual HCC incidence in SVR, % Reported HCC incidence in non-SVR, % (interval in years) Annual HCC incidence in non-SVR, % Study design
HCC development               
Akuta (2011) [34] Asian Japan IFN-based 1273 1.1 783 (61.5) 53 109 (8.6) 3.2 (5) 0.65 Retrospective
Chang (2012) [51] Asian Taiwan IFN-based 1271 (including 400 non-SVR) 3.4 661 (75.9) 55.4a 355 (27.9) 1.2 (3) 0.4 Retrospective
Huang (2014) [52] Asian Taiwan IFN-based 642 4.4 302 (54.3) 51.4a 86 (13.4) 5.8 (5) 1.2 Retrospective
Yamashita (2014) [53] Asian Japan IFN-based 562 4.8 311 (55.3) 57 129 (23.0) 3.1 (5) 0.63 Retrospective
Oze (2014) [54] Asian Japan IFN-based 1425 3.3 727 (51.0) 54.5 118 (11.6) 2.6 (5) 0.53 11.7 (5) 2.49 Prospective
Toyoda (2015) [55] Asian Japan IFN-based 522 7.2 292 (55.9) 50.6 27 (5.5) 1.2 (5) 0.24 Retrospective
Wang (2016) [56] Asian Taiwan IFN-based 376 7.6 185 (49.2) 54.1 127 (33.8) 1.4 (5) 0.28 Retrospective
Kobayashi (2016) [57] Asian Japan IFN-based 528 7.3 308 (58.4) 54 78 (14.8) 2.2 (5) 0.44 Retrospective
El-Serag (2016) [36] Caucasian USA IFN-based 10,738 2.8 10,232 (95.3) 53.1a 1548 (14.4) 0.33 (5) 0.07 Retrospective
Nagaoki (2016) [58] Asian Japan IFN-based 1094 4.2 585 (53.5) 60 208 (1.9) 4.0 (5) 0.82 Retrospective
Tada (2016) [59] Asian Japan IFN-based 587 14.0 324 (55.2) 50 4.4 (10) 0.45 14.7 (10) 1.59 Retrospective
Tada (2016) [60] Asian Japan IFN-based 170 14.2 106 (62.4) 52.5 7.1 (10) 0.74 Retrospective
van der Meer (2016) [61] Caucasian Europe and Canada IFN-based 1000 5.7 676 (68.0) 52.7 842 (85.0) 7.6 (8) 0.99 Retrospective
Kobayashi (2016) [57] Asian Japan DAAs 77 4.0 34 (44.2) 63 23 (29.9) 3.0 (5) 0.62 Retrospective
HCC development or recurrence               
Conti (2016) [39] Caucasian Italy DAAs 344 (59 had previous HCC, including 30 non-SVR) 0.5 207 (60.1) 63 39 (11.3) Resection, ablation, TACE 3.2 (0.5)d 6.3d Retrospective
Cheung (2016) [24] Caucasian UK DAAs 317 (18 had previous HCC) 1.3 NA 54 254 (80.1) Resection, ablation, TACE 5.4 (1.3) 4.27 11.2 (1.3) 9.14 Prospective
HCC recurrence               
Saito (2014) [62] Asian Japan IFN-based 14 3.9 13 (92.9%) 72 12 (85.7) Resection, ablation 18.0 (3) 6.62 75.3 (3) 46.61 Retrospective
Huang (2015) [63] Asian Taiwan IFN-based 56 4.4 36 (64.3) 61.6 21 (37.5) Resection, ablation 43.2b 84.8b Retrospective
Kunimoto (2016) [64] Asian Japan IFN-based 40 5.1 35 (87.5%) 65 14 (35.0) Resection, ablation 23.0 (3) 8.71 56.0 (3) 27.37 Retrospective
Petta (2016) [65] Caucasian Italy IFN-based 57 2.8 41 (72.0) 62 0 Resection, ablation 15.2 (2) 8.24 Retrospective
Minami (2016) [66] Asian Japan IFN-based 38 27 (71.0) 66 0 Ablation 52.9 (2) 37.6 Retrospective
Conti (2016) [39] Caucasian Italy DAAs 59 (including 6 non-SVR) 0.5 40 (67.8) 72 10 (16.9) Resection, ablation, TACE 28.8d (0.5) 49.3d Retrospective
Reig (2016) [40] Caucasian Spain DAAs 58 0.5 40 (69.0) 66.3 5 (8.6) Resection, ablation, TACE 27.6d (0.5) 47.6d Retrospective
ANRS study group (2016) [42] Caucasian France DAAs 189 (including 41 non-SVR) 2.2 147 (78.0) 62a 152 (80.0) Resection, ablation, LT 0.73b,d 8.76c,d 0.66b,e 7.92c,e Prospective
ANRS study group (2016) [42] Caucasian France DAAs 13 1.8 11 (85.0) 61a 13 (100) Resection, ablation 1.1b 13.3c 1.7b,e 20.76c,e Prospective
ANRS study group (2016) [42] Caucasian France DAAs 314 257 (82.0) 61a 49 (15.6) LT 2.2 (0.5) 4.4 Prospective
Petta (2016) [65] Caucasian Italy DAAs 58 1.5 40 (69.0) 66.3 2 (4.0) Resection, ablation 26.3 (2) 15.3 Retrospective
Minami (2016) [66] Asian Japan DAAs 27 18 (67.0) 71 0 Ablation 29.8 (2) 17.7 Retrospective
  1. When not reported, annual HCC incidence was estimated by using the declining exponential approximation of life expectancy [67]
  2. aMean
  3. b100 person-month
  4. c100 person-year
  5. dIncidence in patients including non-SVR patients
  6. eIncidence in patients not treated by anti-HCV therapy
  7. DAA direct-acting antiviral, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, HCV hepatitis C virus, IFN interferon, LT liver transplantation, SVR sustained virologic response, TACE transarterial chemoembolization