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Table 4 Exploratory subgroup analysis of the main analyses: multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) for allopurinol use and for the duration of allopurinol use by each VA risk factor

From: Allopurinol and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in the elderly: a study using US Medicare data

  Allopurinol use (using model 5) HR (95% CI) [P value] Allopurinol use duration (using model 6) HR (95% CI) [P value]
No Yes 0 day 1 to 180 days 181 days to 2 years > 2 years
Coronary artery disease
 No 1 0.60 (0.47–0.78) [0.0001] Ref 0.71 (0.47–1.06) [0.09] 0.57 (0.42–0.83) [0.002] 0.45 (0.25–0.81) [0.007]
 Yes Ref 0.85 (0.77–0.95) [0.003] Ref 0.97 (0.84–1.12) [0.64] 0.79 (0.69–0.90) [0.001] 0.79 (0.62–0.99) [0.04]
Cardiomyopathy-dilated or hypertrophic
 No Ref 0.80 (0.71–0.90) [0.0002] Ref 0.91 (0.77–1.07) [0.26] 0.75 (0.65–0.88) [0.0002] 0.71 (0.55–0.91) [0.007]
 Yes Ref 0.84 (0.71–0.99) [0.04] Ref 0.95 (0.75–1.21) [0.68] 0.77 (0.62–0.96) [0.02] 0.73 (0.46–1.15) [0.17]
Heart failure
 No Ref 0.74 (0.65–0.85) [< 0.0001] Ref 0.88 (0.73–1.07) [0.20] 0.67 (0.55–0.81) [< 0.0001] 0.66 (0.50–0.89) [0.006]
 Yes Ref 0.89 (0.78–1.01) [0.08] Ref 0.98 (0.81–1.18) [0.82] 0.84 (0.74–0.99) [0.04] 0.79 (0.57–1.10) [0.16]
Congenital heart disease
 No Ref 0.82 (0.74–0.90) [< 0.0001] Ref 0.93 (0.81–1.06) [0.26] 0.76 (0.68–0.87) [< 0.0001] 0.73 (0.59–0.91) [0.005]
 Yes Ref 0.80 (0.41–1.57) [0.52] Ref 1.36 (0.60–3.11) [0.47] 0.52 (0.18–1.44) [0.21] 0.00 (0.0–0.0) [< 0.0001]
Valvular heart disease
 No Ref 0.82 (0.74–0.92) [0.0004] Ref 0.94 (0.81–1.09) [0.39] 0.77 (0.67–0.88) [0.0002] 0.74 (0.58–0.94) [0.01]
 Yes Ref 0.78 (0.63–0.97) [0.025] Ref 0.92 (0.68–1.24) [0.56] 0.72 (0.58–0.95) [0.018] 0.66 (0.38–1.13) [0.13]
Renal failure
 No Ref 0.81 (0.67–0.98) [0.03] Ref 0.93 (0.70–1.24) [0.62] 0.79 (0.62–1.01) [0.06] 0.63 (0.42–0.96) [0.03]
 Yes Ref 0.81 (0.73–0.91) [0.0003] Ref 0.93 (0.80–1.09) [0.37] 0.75 (0.65–0.86) [< 0.0001] 0.75 (0.58–0.97) [0.03]
Dialysis
 No Ref 0.81 (0.73–0.89) [< 0.0001] Ref 0.90 (0.79–1.03) [0.14] 0.76 (0.67–0.87) [< 0.0001] 0.73 (0.53–0.90) [0.004]
 Yes Ref 1.36 (0.54–3.43) [0.52] Ref 2.43 (1.03–5.69) [0.04] 0.73 (0.19–2.77) [0.64] 0.00 (0.0–0.0) [< 0.0001]
Sarcoidosis
 No Ref 0.81 (0.74–0.89) [< 0.0001] Ref 0.93 (0.81–1.06) [0.29] 0.76 (0.67–0.85) [< 0.0001] 0.72 (0.58–0.90) [0.003]
 Yes Ref 0.86 (0.13–5.58) [0.88] Ref 0.73 (0.05–11.2) [0.82] 1.11 (0.11–11.41) [0.93] 0.00 (0.0–0.0) [< 0.0001]
Hyperkalemia
 No Ref 0.81 (0.73–0.91) [0.0002] Ref 0.92 (0.78–1.08) [0.31] 0.76 (0.66–0.88) [0.0001] 0.73 (0.57–0.93) [0.01]
 Yes Ref 0.82 (0.68–0.99) [0.04] Ref 0.95 (0.73–1.22) [0.68] 0.76 (0.59–0.97) [0.03] 0.67 (0.42–1.08) [0.10]
  1. Model 5 = Allopurinol use + age + race + sex + beta blockers + diuretics + ACE inhibitors + statins + CAD + cardiomyopathy + heart failure + congenital heart disease + valvular heart disease + renal failure + dialysis + sarcoidosis + hyperkalemia + aspirin + digoxin + calcium channel blockers + amiodarone + flecainide + ranolazine
  2. Model 6 = Allopurinol duration + age + race + sex + beta blockers + diuretics + ACE inhibitors + Statins + CAD + cardiomyopathy + heart failure + congenital heart disease + Valvular heart disease + renal failure + dialysis + sarcoidosis + hyperkalemia + aspirin + digoxin + calcium channel blockers + amiodarone + flecainide + ranolazine
  3. Significant hazards ratios and P values are in bold