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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of incident HCC cases and matched control subjects within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study from 1992 to 2010

From: Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study

Characteristic Case subjects (N = 139) Matched control subjects (N = 139)a P value
Men (%) 70.5 70.5 e
Age at blood collection (y), mean (SD) 60.0 (7.3) 60.0 (7.3) e
Follow-up from blood collection (y), mean (SD) 6.0 (3.4) --
Smoking status (%)    0.002
 Never smoker 29.7 43.5  
 Former smoker 30.4 36.2
 Current smoker 39.1 19.6
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 28.4 (4.7) 27.3 (4.2) 0.035
Physical activity (%)    0.652
 Inactive 7.3 10.9  
 Moderately inactive 36.2 31.2
 Moderately active 46.4 48.6
 Active 10.1 9.4
No. with prevalent diabetes (%) 13.0 7.3 0.455
HBV or HCV positive (%)b 35.6 3.0 <0.001
 HBV positive (%)b 16.8 2.0 <0.001
 HCV positive (%)b 21.8 2.0 <0.001
Liver damage score (%)b
 0 29.0 83.2 <0.001
 1–2 31.0 16.8  
 ≥3 40.0 0
Baseline blood biomarkers, mean (SD)
 Anti-LPS IgG + IgA 4.27 (1.38) 3.64 (1.32) <0.001
 Anti-flagellin IgG + IgA 3.81 (1.34) 3.22 (1.17) <0.001
 Anti-LPS IgG + anti-flagellin IgG 3.62 (1.31) 3.19 (1.19) 0.005
 Anti-LPS IgA + anti-flagellin IgA 4.46 (1.57) 3.67 (1.40) <0.001
 Anti-LPS IgG + IgA + anti-flagellin IgG + IgA 8.08 (2.59) 6.86 (2.34) <0.001
 Fischer's ratioc 1.33 (0.26) 1.53 (0.24) <0.001
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)d 2.8 (3.0) 2.0 (2.2) 0.006
  1. From the following recruitment centers, number of HCC cases: Denmark (N = 21), Germany (N = 31), Greece (N = 16), Italy (N = 28), Spain (N = 11), Sweden (N = 13), the Netherlands (N = 4), United Kingdom (N = 15). No eligible case patients were identified in the cohorts of France and Norway, which include women only
  2. aControl subjects had to be alive as of the time of diagnosis of the corresponding case patients and were matched with case patients for study center, sex, age at the time of blood collection (±12 months), date of blood collection (±2 months), and time of day of blood collection (±3 h). Women were further matched by menopausal status (pre-, post-, or perimenopausal) and use of exogenous hormones (oral contraceptives for premenopausal women and hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women) at time of blood collection
  3. bAvailable for 100 cases and 100 controls
  4. cCalculated as the molar ratio of branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, isoleucine) to aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan), an indicator of hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction. Geometric means (SD)
  5. dGeometric means and SDs, available for 100 cases and 100 controls
  6. eMatching factor