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Table 4 Independent predictors of 3-year Quality and Outcomes Framework indicators for overall exceptions

From: Incentivised chronic disease management and the inverse equity hypothesis: findings from a longitudinal analysis of Scottish primary care practice-level data

Predictor   Total exceptions  
Univariate (odds ratios) Best fit (odds ratios)
Estimated (95% CI), P value Overall P value Estimated (95% CI), P value Overall P value
Year 2010/2011* 2011/2012 2012/2013 - 0.995 (0.991–1.000), P = 0.062 1.024 (1.019–1.029), P < 0.001 P < 0.001 - 0.997 (0.993–1.002), P = 0.293 1.028 (1.023–1.033), P < 0.001 P < 0.001
Practice population: % in top 15% most deprived None* <5% 5–15% 15–25% 25–50% >50% - 1.042 (1.019–1.065), P < 0.001 1.178 (1.119–1.239), P < 0.001 1.268 (1.202–1.338), P < 0.001 1.359 (1.282–1.440), P < 0.001 1.418 (1.325–1.517), P < 0.001 P < 0.001 - 1.035 (1.012–1.059), P = 0.002 1.128 (1.068–1.192), P < 0.001 1.188 (1.119–1.261), P < 0.001 1.278 (1.197–1.365), P < 0.001 1.325 (1.227–1.429), P < 0.001 P < 0.001
Practice population: mean age <40* 40–41 ≥42 - 0.908 (0.843–0.979), P = 0.012 0.785 (0.727–0.847), P < 0.001 P < 0.001 removed during backward stepwise regression  
Practice population: list size <5000* 5–10,000 ≥10,000 - 1.137 (1.066–1.213), P < 0.001 1.121 (1.003–1.254), P = 0.045 P < 0.001 - 1.091 (1.021–1.165), P = 0.010 1.081 (0.970–1.206), P = 0.160 P = 0.030
Practice population: patients per GP <1000* 1000–1500 ≥1500 - 1.092 (1.018–1.171), P = 0.014 1.186 (1.092–1.288), P < 0.001 P < 0.001 removed during backward stepwise regression  
Practice GPs: number of GPs 1* 2–3 4–6 ≥7 - 0.921 (0.802–1.057), P = 0.240 0.956 (0.833–1.097), P = 0.520 1.008 (0.876–1.159), P = 0.911 P = 0.150 removed during backward stepwise regression  
Practice GPs: mean age ≤44* 45–49 ≥50 - 0.984 (0.915–1.059), P = 0.672 1.025 (0.946–1.111), P = 0.549 P = 0.594 removed during backward stepwise regression  
Practice: urban/rural Large urban* Other urban Small town Rural - 0.856 (0.796–0.921), P < 0.001 0.870 (0.792–0.955), P = 0.003 0.659 (0.609–0.713), P < 0.001 P < 0.001 - 0.900 (0.835–0.970), P = 0.006 0.971 (0.881–1.070), P = 0.548 0.799 (0.727–0.878), P < 0.001 P < 0.001
Indicator: % not achieved <5%* 5–10% >10% - 0.923 (0.918–0.928), P < 0.001 0.853 (0.846–0.859), P < 0.001 P < 0.001 - 0.922 (0.917–0.927), P < 0.001 0.852 (0.846–0.858), P < 0.001 P < 0.001
Indicator: threshold increasing No* Yes - 1.204 (0.645–2.248), P = 0.560 P = 0.560 removed during backward stepwise regression  
  1. * Reference group for odds ratio
  2. CI confidence interval, GP general practitioner