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Table 3 Factors associated with 12-month virological success (<500 copies/mL) in the 106 HIV-1-infected children randomised in the ANRS 12206 MONOD study (Abidjan and Ouagadougou, February 2013–February 2015)

From: Efavirenz-based simplification after successful early lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based therapy in HIV-infected children in Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire: the MONOD ANRS 12206 non-inferiority randomised trial

  Total N = 106 Virological success (<500 copies/mL) N = 89 Virological failure (≥500 copies/mL) N = 17 p value
Country     0.83
 Abidjan 71 (67.0) 60 (67.4) 11 (64.7)  
 Ouagadougou 35 (33.0) 29 (32.6) 6 (35.3)  
Sex     0.81
 Female 59 (55.7) 50 (56.2) 9 (52.9)  
 Male 47 (44.3) 39 (43.8) 8 (47.1)  
Treatment arm     0.73
 AZT/ABC + 3TC + LPV/r 54 (50.9) 46 (51.7) 8 (47.1)  
 ABC + 3TC + EFV 52 (49.1) 43 (48.3) 9 (52.9)  
Main caregiver for children     1.00
 Mother main caregiver 88 (83.0) 74 (83.2) 14 (82.4)  
 Father/other in charge of care 18 (17.0) 15 (16.8) 3 (17.6)  
Father informed of the child’s HIV status     0.30
 No 44 (41.5) 35 (39.3) 9 (52.9)  
 Yes 62 (58.5) 54 (60.7) 8 (47.1)  
History of antiretroviral drug exposure     0.63
 Prenatal maternal ART 9 (8.5) 7 (7.9) 2 (11.8)  
 PMTCT only 32 (30.2) 27 (30.3) 5 (29.4)  
 Postnatal maternal ART only 13 (12.3) 12 (13.5) 1 (5.9)  
 PMTCT and postnatal maternal ART 10 (9.4) 7 (7.9) 3 (17.6)  
 No previous exposure to any PMTCT or ART 42 (39.6) 36 (40.4) 6 (35.3)  
Age at randomisation     0.39
 <24 months 41 (38.7) 36 (40.4) 5 (29.4)  
 ≥24 months 65 (61.3) 53 (59.6) 12 (70.6)  
WHO clinical stage at randomisation     
 Stage 1, 2, 3 83 (78.3) 73 (82.0) 10 (58.8) 0.05
 Stage 4 23 (21.7) 16 (18.0) 7 (41.2)  
Z-score Weight-for-age at ART initiation     0.35
 Normal 50 (47.2) 44 (49.4) 6 (35.3)  
 Moderate 22 (20.7) 19 (21.4) 3 (17.6)  
 Severe 34 (32.1) 26 (29.2) 8 (47.1)  
Z-score Height-for-age at ART initiation     0.09
 Normal 55 (51.9) 50 (56.2) 5 (29.4)  
 Moderate 21 (19.8) 15 (16.8) 6 (35.3)  
 Severe 30 (28.3) 24 (27.0) 6 (35.3)  
CD4 % at ART initiation     0.60
 >35% 13 (12.3) 10 (11.2) 3 (17.6)  
 25–35% 19 (17.9) 17 (19.1) 2 (11.8)  
 <25% or missing 74 (69.8) 62 (69.7) 12 (70.6)  
  1. Data are presented as n (%)
  2. AZT Zidovudine, 3TC Lamivudine, ABC Abacavir, EFV Efavirenz, LPV/r Lopinavir-boosted ritonavir, ART Antiretroviral therapy, PMTCT Prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, WHO World Health Organization. Normal: Z-score ≥ 2 Standard Deviations (SD); Z-score <-2 SD corresponds to moderate malnutrition, being severe form at a Z-score<-3 SD