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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population according to antidepressant medication use, n = 7381

From: Antidepressant use and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people – The Three-City Cohort

  Antidepressant use at baseline and 2-year follow-up  
  Non treated Treated within the same class χ2
  N = 7085 % N = 296 % P value
Gender (women) 59.4 79.7 <0.0001
Education    
  < 6 years 23.9 28.4 0.05
 6–11 years 36.0 38.2
  > 11 years 40.1 33.4
Body mass index    
 Normal (<25) 47.4 43.6 0.28
 Overweight (25–30) 39.8 40.9
 Obese (≥30) 12.8 15.5
Alcohol    
 0 19.1 29.7 <0.0001
 1–36 g/day 72.0 67.2
  > 36 g/day 8.9 3.1
Caffeine    
 0–1 cup/day 25.2 34.8 0.001
 2–3 cups/day 59.8 52.0
  > 3 cups/day 15.0 13.2
Fruit and vegetable consumption    0.0006
 Less than twice per day 28.3 37.5
Hierarchical disability indicator    <0.0001
 Fully independent 55.8 31.8
 Mild disability 37.9 49.0
 Moderate to severe disability 6.3 19.2
Visual impairment 15.8 24.7 <0.0001
Respiratory pathologies 8.0 7.4 0.73
Diabetes 9.6 13.8 0.01
Ischemic pathologies 15.8 20.6 0.06
ApoE 4 allele 20.2 19.9 0.92
Benzodiazepine use 17.5 59.8 <0.0001
Anticholinergic drug use 5.3 13.2 <0.0001
Other CNS drugs 5.3 18.2 <0.0001
Number of other medications    <0.0001
 0–1 34.9 18.9
 2 29.5 33.5
 3+ 35.6 47.6
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Wilcoxon test P value
Age 73 (69–77) 74 (70–78) 0.007
CES-D score 8 (3–14) 16 (7–24) <0.0001
Spielberger score 38 (33–45) 47 (40–54) <0.0001
MMSE score 28 (27–29) 28 (26–29) 0.09
Benton test score 12 (10–13) 11 (9–13) <0.0001
Isaacs total score 48 (41–55) 43 (37–50) <0.0001
TMTA (seconds) 50 (40–64) 60 (48–75) <0.0001
TMTB (seconds) 97 (75–129) 118 (85–160) <0.0001
  1. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, CNS central nervous system, IQR inter-quartile range, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, TMTA and TMTB Trail Making Tests A and B