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Table 2 Minimally adjusted associations of antidepressant use with 10-year cognitive changes

From: Antidepressant use and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people – The Three-City Cohort

  MMSE \( \sqrt{30-\mathrm{MMSE}} \) N = 7364 BVRT \( \sqrt{15-\mathrm{BVRT}} \) N = 7262 Isaac’s test N = 7291 TMTA ln(TMTA) N = 6090 TMTB ln(TMTB) N = 5857
  β (SE) P value β (SE) P value β (SE) P value β (SE) P value β (SE) P value
Antidepressant   0.14   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.004
 TCAs 0.110 (0.064) 0.08 0.224 (0.054) <0.0001 –5.96 (0.97) <0.0001 0.170 (0.044) 0.0001 0.094 (0.051) 0.07
 SSRIs 0.069 (0.048) 0.15 0.128 (0.041) 0.002 –3.41 (0.74) <0.0001 0.131 (0.034) 0.0001 0.117 (0.039) 0.003
 Others –0.052 (0.086) 0.55 0.095 (0.073) 0.19 –2.61 (1.34) 0.05 0.141 (0.061) 0.02 0.082 (0.071) 0.25
Antidepressant*time   0.53   0.56   0.20   0.39   0.33
 TCAs*time 0.012 (0.014) 0.38 0.006 (0.012) 0.65 0.31 (0.15) 0.04 –0.011 (0.007) 0.11 –0.006 (0.009) 0.48
 SSRIs*time 0.010 (0.011) 0.36 0.013 (0.009) 0.17 0.08 (0.12) 0.50 –0.002 (0.005) 0.75 –0.001 (0.006) 0.83
 Others*time 0.016 (0.020) 0.43 0.002 (0.018) 0.89 –0.06 (0.22) 0.77 0.006 (0.010) 0.53 –0.022 (0.013) 0.09
  1. Models adjusted for age, sex, centre, education and time by age, time by centre and time by education interactions and with non-users as the reference group.
  2. BVRT Benton’s Visual Retention Test, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, SE standard error, SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, TCA tricyclic antidepressant, TMTA and TMTB Trail Making Tests A and B