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Table 3 Multi-adjusted associations of antidepressant use with 10-year cognitive changes

From: Antidepressant use and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people – The Three-City Cohort

  MMSE \( \sqrt{30-\mathrm{MMSE}} \) N = 7364 BVRT \( \sqrt{15-\mathrm{BVRT}} \) N = 7262 Isaac’s test N = 7291 TMTA ln(TMTA) N = 6090 TMTB ln(TMTB) N = 5857
  β (SE) P value β (SE) P value β (SE) P value β (SE) P value β (SE) P value
Antidepressant   0.46   0.02   <0.0001   0.04   0.55
 TCAs 0.034 (0.064) 0.59 0.153 (0.054) 0.005 –4.19 (0.96) <0.0001 0.090 (0.043) 0.04 0.018 (0.051) 0.71
 SSRIs –0.018 (0.048) 0.70 0.053 (0.041) 0.19 –1.58 (0.74) 0.03 0.066 (0.034) 0.05 0.056 (0.039) 0.16
 Others –0.126 (0.086) 0.14 0.029 (0.073) 0.69 –0.78 (1.33) 0.56 0.050 (0.060) 0.40 0.005 (0.070) 0.94
Antidepressant*time   0.52   0.50   0.18   0.38   0.32
 TCAs*time 0.012 (0.014) 0.40 0.005 (0.012) 0.69 0.32 (0.15) 0.04 –0.011 (0.007) 0.11 –0.006 (0.009) 0.51
 SSRIs*time 0.011 (0.011) 0.31 0.014 (0.009) 0.14 0.08 (0.12) 0.51 –0.002 (0.005) 0.77 –0.001 (0.006) 0.86
 Others*time 0.015 (0.020) 0.45 0.002 (0.018) 0.91 –0.06 (0.22) 0.78 0.006 (0.010) 0.52 –0.023 (0.013) 0.08
  1. Models adjusted for time, age, sex, centre, education, body mass index, alcohol, caffeine, fruit and vegetable consumption, activity limitations, visual deficiency, respiratory disease, diabetes, ischemic pathology, ApoE4 genotype, benzodiazepines, anticholinergic drugs, other psychotropic drugs, number of other drugs, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms as well as time by age, time by centre, time by education and time by ApoE4 interactions. Non-users as the reference group
  2. To transform back to the original scale the difference (Δ = y 2y 1) between a group and the non-users:
  3. MMSE: \( \Delta =-{\beta}^2-2\beta \sqrt{\left(30-{y}_1\right)} \); BVRT: \( \Delta =-{\beta}^2-2\beta \sqrt{\left(15-{y}_1\right)} \); TMTA et TMTB: Δ = exp(β) y 1y 1
  4. BVRT Benton’s Visual Retention Test, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, SE standard error, SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, TCA tricyclic antidepressant, TMTA and TMTB Trail Making Tests A and B