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Table 1 Child, maternal and household characteristics at inclusion by study group

From: Effects of unconditional cash transfers on the outcome of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM): a cluster-randomised trial in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Characteristics Intervention arm Control arm P valuea
Number (%) 734 (49.6) 747 (50.4)
Child characteristics
Sex, female, n (%) 422 (57.5) 429 (57.4) 1.000
Age (months), mean (SD) 27.7 ±14.7 27.0 ±13.8 0.348
Age category, n (%)      0.973
 6–11 months 94 (12.8) 94 (12.6)  
 12–23 months 213 (29.0) 214 (28.6)  
 24–59 months 427 (58.2) 439 (58.8)  
Sibling rank, n (%)      0.144
 Elder 86 (11.7) 69 (9.2)  
 Second 103 (14.0) 109 (14.6)  
 Third 126 (17.2) 119 (15.9)  
 Fourth 130 (17.7) 114 (15.3)  
 Fifth and more 288 (39.2) 336 (45.0)  
 Do not know 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)  
Weight (kg), mean (SD)b 7.6 ±1.7 7.5 ±1.7 0.442
Height/length (cm), mean (SD) 76.8 ±9.3 76.3 ±9.1 0.311
WHZ, mean (SD)b –3.1 ±0.6 –3.0 ±0.7 0.052
HAZ, mean (SD) –3.4 ±1.4 –3.5 ±1.5 0.342
MUAC (mm), mean (SD)b 112.3 ±4.6 111.9 ±5.6 0.086
Bilateral oedema, n (%) 63 (8.6) 88 (11.8) 0.052
IDDS, mean (SD) 2.8 ±1.0 2.7 ±0.9 0.009
Maternal characteristics
Age (years), mean (SD) 29.5 ±7.7 29.6 ±7.4 0.675
School achievement, n (%)      <0.001
 None 53 (7.2) 47 (6.3)  
 Primary school 369 (50.3) 466 (62.4)  
 Secondary or high 286 (39.0) 211 (28.2)  
 Do not know 26 (3.5) 23 (3.1)  
Marital status, n (%)      0.649
 Monogamous marriage 505 (68.8) 513 (68.7)  
 Polygamous marriage 166 (22.6) 173 (23.2)  
 Other (single, widow, divorcee, separated) 40 (5.4) 45 (6.0)  
 Do not know 23 (3.1) 16 (2.1)  
BMI, mean (SD) 21.1 ±2.8 21.0 ±2.7 0.423
Breastfeeding at time of enrolment, n (%) 243 (33.1) 240 (32.1) 0.729
Household characteristics
Household size, mean (SD) 8.0 ±2.5 7.6 ±2.5 0.001
No. of children <5 years at home, mean (SD) 2.7 ±1.3 2.1 ±0.9 <0.001
Socioeconomic level (HEA criteria), n (%)      0.058
 Very poor 378 (51.5) 371 (49.7)  
 Poor 184 (25.1) 179 (24.0)  
 Middle 68 (9.3) 103 (13.8)  
 Better-off 104 (14.2) 94 (12.6)  
HDDS, mean (SD) 4.1 ±1.5 4.0 ±1.5 0.185
HDDS category, n (%)      0.098
 Lowest dietary diversity (≤3 food groups) 296 (40.3) 339 (45.4)  
 Medium dietary diversity (4–5 food groups) 309 (42.1) 299 (40.0)  
 High dietary diversity (≥6 food groups) 129 (17.6) 109 (14.6)  
FCS, mean (SD) 43.7 ±12.19 43.5 ±12.8 0.768
FCS category, n (%)      0.676
 Poor (score 0–28) 59 (8.0) 68 (9.1)  
 Borderline (score 28.5–42) 311 (42.4) 322 (43.1)  
 Acceptable (score >42) 364 (49.6) 357 (47.8)  
  1. aFrom Student’s t tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. Note: no corrections for multiple significance tests have been made in this table. With Bonferroni-Holm correction the child’s IDDS score becomes non-significant. It was however, retained as an adjustment in the Cox analyses; the other significances were not changed
  2. bChildren with oedema were excluded from the analysis for the assessment of weight and WHZ
  3. HAZ height-for-age Z-score, BMI body mass index