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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Disease management in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure who have universal access to health care: a randomized controlled trial

  Disease management
(N = 682)
Usual care
(N = 678)
P
  Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.)  
Age (years) 70.8 (11.6) 70.7 (11.0) 0.49
  n (%) n (%)  
Male 473 (69.3) 513 (75.7) 0.009
Source of recruitment      0.33
 Recent hospital admission for heart failure 270 (39.6) 251 (37.0)
 Community 412 (60.4) 427 (63.0)
 Main cause of heart failure: ischemic heart disease 477 (69.9) 489 (72.1) 0.37
Left ventricular ejection fraction      0.085
 Preserved (>50%) 136 (20.2) 111 (16.6)
 Reduced (<50%) 537 (79.8) 559 (83.4)
NYHA functional class      0.005a
 I 5 (0.7) 4 (0.6)
 II 81 (11.9) 116 (17.1)
 III 543 (79.9) 528 (78.0)
 IV 51 (7.5) 29 (4.3)
  Median IQR Median IQR  
6-minute walk test (m) 165 (80, 274) 200 (90, 306) 0.002
Brain natriuretic peptide (pg/mL)b 323 (145, 768) 295 (148, 547) 0.066
  n (%) n (%)  
Chronic atrial fibrillationc 156 (23.4) 177 (26.9) 0.14
  n (%) n (%)  
Treatment      
 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/ Angiotensin receptor blockers 570 (83.6) 567 (83.6) 0.98
 Beta adrenergic receptor blockers 567 (83.1) 569 (83.9) 0.70
 Aldosterone antagonists 256 (37.5) 263 (38.8) 0.63
 Diuretics 629 (92.2) 613 (90.4) 0.23
 Platelet anti-aggregants 486 (71.3) 479 (70.6) 0.80
 Statins 527 (77.3) 534 (78.8) 0.51
 Pacemaker 96 (14.1) 119 (17.5) 0.079
 Implantable cardioverter defibrillator 115 (16.9) 113 (16.7) 0.92
  Median IQR Median IQR  
Health-related quality of life score (SF-36)      
 Physical 38 (27, 53) 41 (30, 54) 0.011
 Mental 46 (37, 58) 48 (38, 58) 0.34
 Depression symptoms score (PHQ-9) 9 (4, 14) 8 (4, 13) 0.28
  n (%) n (%)  
History of cardiovascular disease      
 Myocardial infarction 418 (61.6) 441 (65.0) 0.18
 Percutaneous coronary intervention 280 (41.2) 291 (42.9) 0.53
 Coronary artery bypass grafting 219 (32.2) 236 (34.8) 0.32
 Stroke/transient ischemic attack 103 (15.2) 106 (15.6) 0.81
 Peripheral vascular disease 128 (18.8) 126 (18.6) 0.90
  n (%) n (%)  
Other comorbidity      
 Diabetes mellitus 354 (52.2) 339 (50.0) 0.41
 Hypertension 504 (74.2) 506 (74.7) 0.83
 Dyslipidemia 518 (76.3) 523 (77.1) 0.71
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 122 (18.0) 105 (15.5) 0.22
 Renal failured 377 (56.5) 378 (56.8) 0.93
  Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.)  
Hemoglobin (gr/dL) 12.5 (2.0) 12.8 (1.8) 0.08
Body mass index (kg/m2) 30.0 (5.9) 29.8 (5.5) 0.36
  1. NYHA New York Heart Association, IQR, interquartile range, PHQ-9 nine-item patient health depression scale, s.d. standard deviation, SF-36 36-item short form
  2. aFisher’s exact test
  3. bBaseline brain natriuretic peptide data were available for 377 patients assigned to disease management and 373 patients assigned to usual care
  4. cInformation on presence of atrial fibrillation was missing for 34 patients
  5. dEstimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 signifies renal failure
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