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Table 2 Differences in BMI per increment of 10-risk alleles, according to coffee consumption in the HPFS, NHS, and WHI

From: Habitual coffee consumption and genetic predisposition to obesity: gene-diet interaction analyses in three US prospective studies

Analysis Coffee consumption P for interaction
< 1 cup/day 1–3 cups/day > 3 cups/day
HPFS
 Model 1 0.85 ± 0.25 0.71 ± 0.24 0.29 ± 0.30 0.012
 Model 2 0.81 ± 0.25 0.81 ± 0.25 0.32 ± 0.30 0.023
NHS
 Model 1 1.68 ± 0.18 1.13 ± 0.13 1.21 ± 0.16 0.048
 Model 2 1.59 ± 0.18 1.07 ± 0.13 1.13 ± 0.16 0.039
WHI
 Model 1 1.71 ± 0.30 1.08 ± 0.17 0.97 ± 0.25 0.049
 Model 2 1.74 ± 0.30 1.02 ± 0.17 0.96 ± 0.25 0.044
Pooleda
 Model 1 1.42 ± 0.28 1.05 ± 0.10 0.87 ± 0.26 <0.001
 Model 2 1.38 ± 0.28 1.02 ± 0.10 0.95 ± 0.12 <0.001
  1. Plus-minus values are β coefficients ± SE
  2. In the HPFS and NHS, data were derived from the repeated-measures analysis in men (three measures from 1986 to 1998) and women (three measures from 1986 to 1998); in the WHI, data were derived from the repeated-measures in women (two measures from 1993 to 2003)
  3. Model 1: adjusted for age and genotyping source
  4. Model 2: based on Model 1, further adjusted for physical activity (< 3, 3–8.9, 9–17.9, 18–26.9, ≥ 27 MET-h/wk), Alternative Healthy Eating Index score (quintiles), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking status (never, former, current), sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (quintiles), and alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5–9.9, 10–14.9, ≥ 15 g/day)
  5. aResults for the three cohorts were pooled by means of inverse-variance-weighted random effects meta-analysis (if P < 0.05 for heterogeneity) or fixed effects meta-analysis (if P ≥ 0.05 for heterogeneity)