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Table 1 Cohort demographics, N = 61,836

From: Mediation of the effect of malaria in pregnancy on stillbirth and neonatal death in an area of low transmission: observational data analysis

Variable No malaria, N = 52,486 Malaria, N = 9350
EGA at first ANC (start of follow-up), weeks 14.3 {9.0, 22.7}, 0–43.0 13.7 {9.0, 21.1}, 0–41.1
 First ANC during 1st trimester 25,548 (49) 4753 (51)
Number of ANC consultations 10 {4, 19}, 1–43 12 {5, 21}, 1–42
EGA method
 Ultrasound biometry 33,443 (64) 4793 (51)
 Dubowitz 8745 (17) 1517 (16)
 Fundal height 6337 (12) 2126 (23)
 Last menstrual period 3961 (8) 914 (10)
Maternal age, years 26 {21, 31}, 13–53 25 {20, 30}, 13–51
Primigravida 13756 (26) 2746 (29)
Haematocrita,b, % 34 {31, 36}, 8–53 32 {30, 35}, 10–48
 Anaemiaa,b 4817 (10) 1711 (21)
Current smokera 9765 (22) 2232 (34)
Site
 Refugee camp 32,689 (62) 4369 (47)
 Migrant community 19,797 (38) 4981 (53)
Malaria in pregnancy 9350 (100)
 Falciparum malaria only 3478 (37)
  Last detected in first trimester 715 (21)
  Last detected in second trimester 1411 (41)
  Last detected in third trimester 1352 (39)
  Recurrent falciparum malaria 892 (26)
 Vivax malaria only 4274 (46)
  Last detected in first trimester 654 (15)
  Last detected in second trimester 1365 (32)
  Last detected in third trimester 2255 (53)
  Recurrent vivax malaria 1470 (34)
 Falciparum and vivax malariac 1598 (17)
Fetal loss 5246 (10) 604 (6)
Small-for-gestational-agea,d 7514 (20) 1870 (27)
Preterm birthd 3318 (9) 831 (11)
Caesarean sectiond 1467 (4) 158 (2)
Place of deliveryd
 SMRU delivery unit 23,546 (67) 2941 (47)
 At home 8534 (24) 2778 (44)
 Hospital 3016 (9) 570 (9)
Stillbirth (all) 422 (1.0) 104 (1.3)
 Antepartum stillbirth 202 (0.5) 58 (0.7)
 Intrapartum stillbirth 145 (0.3) 33 (0.4)
 Unclassified stillbirthe 75 (0.2) 13 (0.2)
Lost to follow-upf 8173 (16) 1389 (15)
 EGA when last seen, weeks’ gestation 28.3 {18.6, 35.5}, 4–47 27.5 {19.0, 34.5}, 4–42
  1. EGA estimated gestational age, ANC antenatal clinic, IQR interquartile range. Numbers are median {IQR}, range, or frequency (%)
  2. aMissing data: gravidity 108 [2%] (79 [2%] with no malaria; 29 [0%] with malaria); smoking status 11,733 [19%] (8893 [17%] with no malaria; 2840 [30%] with malaria); haematocrit 7173 [12%] (5798 [11%] with no malaria; 1375 [32%] with malaria); place of delivery 15,698 [25%] (13,020 [25%] with no malaria; 2678 [29%] with malaria); caesarean section 1629 [3%] (1470 [3%] with no malaria; 159 [2%] with malaria); small-for-gestational-age 7308 [14%] (6140 [14%] with no malaria; 1168 [14%] with malaria)
  3. bLast measurement during pregnancy; anaemia defined as last haematocrit measurement during pregnancy <30%; only 0.16% of women were severely anaemic (haematocrit <20%)
  4. cWomen with either a mixed infection or multiple infections of different species
  5. dIn women who gave birth after 28 weeks’ gestation
  6. eTime of fetal demise (i.e. antepartum or intrapartum) unknown
  7. fWomen lost to follow-up were more likely to be primigravid, smokers, migrant, and anaemic