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Table 2 Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for prostate cancer in relation to height at recruitment in men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

From: Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study

  No. of cases Fifths    Continuous per 10 cm
1 2 3 4 5
Height, cm HR HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) P for trend1 P for het.2
Median (range)   165.2 (115.0–168.5) 171.0 (168.5–173.0) 175.0 (173.0–176.7) 178.9 (176.7–181.0) 184.2 (181.0–210.0)    
Total prostate cancer 7010 1.00 ref 1.04 (0.96–1.12) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 0.3   1.02 (0.98–1.06)
Grade
 Low-intermediate 3740 1.00 ref 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 0.97 (0.88–1.08) 0.91 (0.82–1.01) 0.96 (0.86–1.08) 0.2   0.97 (0.92–1.03)
 High 726 1.00 ref 1.30 (1.02–1.66) 1.39 (1.08–1.79) 1.35 (1.04–1.74) 1.54 (1.18–2.03) 0.006 0.002 1.21 (1.06–1.38)
Stage
 Localised 2632 1.00 ref 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 1.01 (0.89–1.14) 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 0.7   0.98 (0.92–1.05)
 Advanced 1387 1.00 ref 1.04 (0.88–1.24) 1.11 (0.92–1.32) 1.13 (0.95–1.35) 1.09 (0.90–1.32) 0.4 0.2 1.06 (0.96–1.16)
Prostate cancer deaths 932 1.00 ref 1.13 (0.92–1.39) 1.17 (0.94–1.46) 1.13 (0.91–1.41) 1.43 (1.14–1.80) 0.001   1.17 (1.04–1.31)
  1. Cox regression analysis. All models are stratified by centre and age at recruitment and adjusted for education level (less than university, university graduate, missing), smoking status (never, former, current, missing), marital status (married, not married, missing), diabetes (yes, no, missing), and physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active, missing)
  2. 1 P values for trend are obtained by entering the continuous height in the model
  3. 2 P value from test for heterogeneity for the associations of height with risk of prostate cancer categorised according to prostate tumour grade (low-intermediate or high) and stage (localised or advanced)
  4. Low-intermediate grade (Gleason score of < 8, or grade coded as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated). High grade (Gleason score of ≥ 8, or grade coded as undifferentiated). Localised stage (TNM staging score of ≤ T2 and N0/Nx and M0, or stage coded in the recruitment centre as localised). Advanced stage (T3–T4 and/or N1–N3 and/or M1, and/or stage coded in the recruitment centre as metastatic)