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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for prostate cancer in relation to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference at recruitment in men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

From: Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study

  No. of cases Fifths P for trend1 P for het.2  
1 2 3 4 5
HR HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
BMI, kg/m2          Continuous per 5 kg/m2
Median (range)   22.2 (12.7–23.5) 24.5 (23.5–25.3) 26.1 (25.3–27.0) 28.0 (27.0–29.2) 31.1 (29.2–68.4)    
Total prostate cancer 6991 1.00 ref 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 1.04 (0.96–1.12) 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 0.90 (0.83–0.97) <0.001   0.94 (0.90–0.98)
Grade
 Low-intermediate 3727 1.00 ref 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 0.90 (0.80–1.00) 0.89 (0.79–0.99) 0.001   0.92 (0.87–0.98)
 High 720 1.00 ref 1.38 (1.07–1.77) 1.30 (1.01–1.68) 1.32 (1.02–1.71) 1.32 (1.01–1.72) 0.07 0.01 1.10 (0.97–1.25)
Stage
 Localised 2622 1.00 ref 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 1.00 (0.88–1.14) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 0.86 (0.75–0.99) 0.001   0.90 (0.84–0.97)
 Advanced 1384 1.00 ref 1.04 (0.87–1.24) 1.24 (1.05–1.48) 1.08 (0.90–1.29) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 0.3 0.01 1.05 (0.96–1.15)
Prostate cancer deaths 931 1.00 ref 1.15 (0.93–1.42) 1.20 (0.97–1.48) 1.05 (0.84–1.31) 1.35 (1.09–1.68) 0.01   1.14 (1.02–1.27)
Waist, cm          Continuous per 10 cm
Median (range)   82.5 (51.0–86.0) 89.0 (86.0–91.9) 94.0 (91.9–96.5) 99.5 (96.5–103.0) 108.0 (103.0–180.0)    
Total prostate cancer 6352 1.00 ref 1.01 (0.93–1.09) 1.00 (0.93–1.09) 0.99 (0.91–1.07) 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.01   0.97 (0.94–1.00)
Grade
 Low-intermediate 3251 1.00 ref 0.97 (0.87–1.09) 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 0.003   0.95 (0.91–0.99)
 High 641 1.00 ref 1.36 (1.02–1.81) 1.26 (0.94–1.67) 1.58 (1.20–2.08) 1.43 (1.07–1.92) 0.001 0.002 1.13 (1.03–1.25)
Stage
 Localised 2075 1.00 ref 0.96 (0.82–1.11) 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 0.89 (0.76–1.03) 0.03   0.96 (0.91–1.01)
 Advanced 1291 1.00 ref 1.20 (1.00–1.46) 1.17 (0.97–1.41) 1.30 (1.08–1.56) 1.08 (0.89–1.32) 0.2 0.1 1.03 (0.96–1.10)
Prostate cancer deaths 877 1.00 ref 1.21 (0.96–1.53) 1.03 (0.81–1.31) 1.28 (1.02–1.61) 1.55 (1.23–1.96) <0.001   1.18 (1.08–1.28)
  1. Cox regression analysis. All models are stratified by centre and age at recruitment and adjusted for education level (less than university, university graduate, missing), smoking status (never, former, current, missing), marital status (married, not married, missing), diabetes (yes, no, missing), and physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, active, missing)
  2. 1 P values for trend are obtained by entering the continuous anthropometric variable in the model
  3. 2 P value from test for heterogeneity for the associations of the anthropometric variable with risk of prostate cancer categorised according to prostate tumour grade (low-intermediate or high) and stage (localised or advanced)
  4. Low-intermediate grade (Gleason score of < 8, or grade coded as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated). High grade (Gleason score of ≥ 8, or grade coded as undifferentiated). Localised stage (TNM staging score of ≤ T2 and N0/Nx and M0, or stage coded in the recruitment centre as localised). Advanced stage (T3–T4 and/or N1–N3 and/or M1, and/or stage coded in the recruitment centre as metastatic)