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Fig. 6 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 6

From: Synergistic effect of IL-12 and IL-18 induces TIM3 regulation of γδ T cell function and decreases the risk of clinical malaria in children living in Papua New Guinea

Fig. 6

TIM3 is upregulated by IL-12/18 and IPP. PBMCs from healthy individuals (n = 10) were stimulated with (a) iRBCs (3:1), LPS, IPP, or cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12/IL-18, IL-4, IL-1β) or (b) IL-12 and IL-18 for 24 h and then surface stained for TIM3 expression. The frequency of γδ T cells expressing TIM3 was compared to that of unstimulated cells. Correlation of IL-18 plasma levels and TIM3 expression in (c) all children (n = 132), (d) children with P. falciparum infection at enrollment (n = 55), and (e) children with no P. falciparum infection at enrollment (n = 77). Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn’s post-test (a and b) and Spearman rank correlation (c and d). **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001

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